Latitude: N 26° 03.476′
Longitude: W 080° 20.920′
Weather Data from home
Wind Speed: 7.8 knots (9 mph)
Wind Direction: East
Wave Height: 2 ft
Surface Water Temperature: 28.9°C (84°F)
Air Temperature: 30°C (86 °F)
Barometric Pressure: 1016 millibars ( 1 atm)
Science and Technology Log:
Below are the numbers that Johanna (my fellow Teacher at Sea) put together at the end of our mission.
We completed 44 hauls in our leg of the survey and caught approximately 118,474 pollock. All of those pollock weighed a collective 24,979.92 kg (= 25 tons)! Last year’s official total allowable catch (called a quota) for all commercial fishermen in Alaska was 1.17 million tons!
So, we only caught 25 tons/ 1,170,000 tons = 0.00002 = 0.002% of the yearly catch in our study.
The estimated population of pollock in the Bering Sea is 10 million tons (10,000,000 T). This means we caught only 0.00025% of the entire pollock population!
So, as you can see, in the big picture, our sampling for scientific analysis is quite TINY!
Continuing with more cool pollock data…
We identified 7,276 males and 7,145 females (and 2,219 were left unsexed)
We measured 16,640 pollock lengths on the Ichthystick!
Pollock lengths ranged from 9cm to 74cm
We measured 260 lengths of non-pollock species (mostly jellyfish, pacific herring, and pacific cod)
We collected 1,029 otoliths for analysis
After two full days of travel including a long red-eye flight across country, I am back in Ft Lauderdale, Florida. I had the most incredible experience as a NOAA Teacher at Sea on the Oscar Dyson! The trip was absolutely amazing! Here are some parting shots taken on my last day in Dutch Harbor, Alaska.
The scientists onboard the Oscar Dyson on this leg of the Alaska Walleye Pollock Acoustic Trawl Survey. From left to right we see fellow Teacher at Sea Johanna, chief scientist Taina, scientists Rick and Kresimir, myself, then scientist Darin.
The bottom-trawl net all wrapped up and ready to off-load. Note the label says “used and abused.” This is to remind workers in the net yard to check and mend the net. It reminds me that we worked hard and worked the equipment harder. Sign me up again for another NOAA Teacher at Sea experience!!!
In closing, I would like to thank a few people. The NOAA Corps officers and deck crew are wonderful and do a great job running a tight ship. I would like to thank them all for keeping me safe, warm, dry, and well fed while out at sea. They all made me feel right at home.
The NOAA scientists Taina, Kresimir, Rick and Darin did a fabulous job patiently explaining the science occurring onboard and I appreciate them letting me become a part of the team! I loved immersing myself back in the practice of real scientific inquiry and research!
I would like to thank the NOAA Teacher at Sea program for allowing me to take part in this incredible research experience for teachers! Teachers and students in my district are very excited to hear about my experiences and I look forward to continuing to share with them about NOAA Teacher at Sea! Sign me up, and I’d be happy to “set sail” with NOAA again.
Finally, I would like to thank my readers. I truly enjoyed sharing my experiences with you and hope that, through my blog, you were able to experience a bit of the Bering Sea with me.
Latitude: 53°54’41″ N
Longitude: 166°30’61″ E
Ship speed: 0 knots (0 mph) In Captains Bay at Dutch Harbor during calibration.
Weather Data from the Bridge
Wind Speed: 17 knots (19.5 mph)
Wind Direction: 184°
Wave Height: 1-2 ft
Surface Water Temperature: 10.2°C (50.4°F)
Air Temperature: 12.5°C (54.5°F)
Barometric Pressure: 1005.9 millibars (0.99 atm)
Science and Technology Log:
Imagine a time when fish surveys could be done through remote sensing, thus eliminating the need to catch fish via trawling to verify fish school composition, length, weight, and age data. During our “Leg 3” of the Alaska Pollock Acoustic Midwater Trawl Survey, we caught, sorted, sexed, and measured 25 tons of pollock! While this amounts to only 0.002% of the entire pollock quota and 0.00025% of the pollock population, wouldn’t it be nice if we could determine the pollock population without killing as many fish?
Cam-Trawl sitting on deck after several successful trawls.
Introducing the “Cam-Trawl,” a camera-in-net technology that NOAA scientists Kresimir and Rick are developing to eventually reduce, if not eliminate, the need to collect biological specimens to verify acoustic data. Cam-Trawl consists of a pair of calibrated cameras slightly offset so the result is a stereo-camera.
The importance of setting up a stereo-camera is so you can use the slightly different pictures taken at the same time from each camera to calculate length of the fish in the pictures. Eventually, a computer system might use complex algorithms to count and measure length of the fish that pass by the camera. If the kinks are worked out, the trawl net would be deployed with the codend open, allowing fish to enter the net and flow past the camera to have their picture taken before swimming out of the open end of the net. Some trawls would still require keeping the codend closed to determine gender ratios and weights for extrapolation calculations; however, the use of Cam-Trawl would significantly reduce the amount of pollock that see the fish lab of the Oscar Dyson. On this leg of the survey, the NOAA scientists installed the Cam-Trawl in a couple of different locations along the trawl net to determine where it might work best.
Installing Cam-Trawl into the side of the AWT trawl net so the NOAA scientists may capture image data during trawls.
Below are some photos taken by Cam-Trawl of fish inside the AWT trawl net. Remember, there are two cameras installed as a stereo-camera that create two images that are taken at slightly different angles. In the photos below, I only picked one of the two images to show. In the video that follows, you can see how scientists use BOTH photos to calculate the lengths of the fish captured on camera.
Pollock (Theregra chalcogramma) as seen by Cam-Trawl.
A Sea Nettle (Chrysaora melanaster) jellyfish at top right, Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta ) at bottom right, and Pacific Herring (Clupea harengus) on the left as seen by Cam-Trawl installed in the AWT trawl net.
CamTrawl Analysis Take2
Another NOAA innovation using stereo cameras is called “Trigger-Cam.” Trigger-Cam is installed into a crab pot to allow it to sit on the ocean floor. For this type of camera deployment, the NOAA scientists removed the crab pot net so they would not catch anything except pictures.
Trigger-Cam back on the deck of the Oscar Dyson after a successful test run.
The real innovation in the Trigger-Cam is the ability to only take pictures when fish are present. Deep-water fish, in general, do not see red light. The Trigger-Cam leverages this by using a red LED to check for the presence of fish. If the fish come close enough, white LEDs are used as the flash to capture the image by the cameras.
Skilled Fisherman Jim lowering down the “heart” of Trigger-Cam for a trial run. On this dip, Trigger-Cam went down to 100 meters. Several of these tests were done before installing Trigger-Cam into a crab pot.
The beauty of this system is that it uses existing fishing gear that crab fishermen are familiar with, so it will be easily deployable. Another stroke of brilliance is that the entire device will cost less than $3,000. This includes the two cameras, lights, onboard computer, nickel-metal hydride batteries, and a pressure housing capable of withstanding pressures of up to 50 atmospheres (500 meters) as tested on the Oscar Dyson! Here is a short animated PowerPoint that explains how Trigger-Cam works. Enjoy!
Here are a couple of picture captured by the Trigger-Cam during trials!
Two pictures taken from Trigger-Cam during testing.
While these pictures were captured during tests in Dutch Harbor, they do provide proof-of-concept in this design. With a cheap, easily deployable and retrievable stereo-camera system that utilized fishing gear familiar to most deck hands, Trigger-Cams might contribute to NOAA’s future technology to passively survey fish populations.
NOAA scientists Kresimir Williams (in center), Rick Towler (on right), and me, after assembling and testing another stereo-camera system for a NOAA scientist working on the next cruise. Kresimir and Rick designed and built Trigger-Cam!
A little fun at sea! We needed to do one last CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth), and decided to lower the CTD over deep water down to 500 meters (1,640.42 ft)! Pressures increases 1 atmosphere for every 10 meters in depth. At 500 meters, the pressure is at 50 atmospheres!!! We wondered what would happen if… we took styrofoam cups down to that depth. We all decorated our cups and put them in a net mesh bag before they took the plunge. Here is a picture showing what 50 atmospheres of pressure will do to a styrofoam cup!
Three styrofoam cups that went 500 meters deep in the Bering Sea! These cups were originally the size of the undecorated white styrofoam cup in the background.
We missed the Summer Olympics while out on the Bering Sea. T-T We did get in the Olympic spirit and had a race or two. Here is a little video in the spirit of the Olympics…
All for now… We are back in Captains Bay, Dutch Harbor, but are calibrating the hydroacoustic equipment at anchor. Calibration involves suspending a solid copper sphere below the ship while the NOAA scientists check and fine-tune the different transducers. This process will take about 7 hours! We have been out at sea for 3 weeks, are currently surrounded by land, but must wait patiently to finish this last and very important scientific task. If the calibration is off, it could skew the data and result in an inaccurate population estimation and quotas that may not be sustainable! This Landlubber can’t wait to have his feet back on terra firma. The thought of swimming crossed my mind, but I think I’ll wait. Then we will see if I get Land Sickness from being out at sea for so long…
Latitude: 60°25’90″ N
Longitude: 177°28’76″ W
Ship speed: 3 knots (3.45 mph)
Weather Data from the Bridge
Wind Speed: 5 knots (5.75 mph)
Wind Direction: 45°
Wave Height: 2-4 ft with a 2 ft swell
Surface Water Temperature: 8.6°C (47.5 °F)
Air Temperature: 8°C (46.4 °F)
Barometric Pressure: 1019 millibars (1 atm)
Science and Technology Log:
In my last blog, we learned about how the scientists onboard the Oscar Dyson use some very sophisticated echo-location SONAR equipment to survey the Walleye pollock population.
Can the Walleye pollock hear the “pings” from the SONAR?
No. Unlike in the movies like “The Hunt for Red October” where submarines are using sound within the human audible range to “ping” their targets, the SONAR onboard the Oscar Dyson operates at frequencies higher than both the human and fish range of hearing. The frequency used for most data collection is 38 kHz. Human hearing ranges from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Walleye pollock can hear up to 900 Hz. So, the pollock cannot hear the SONAR used to locate them…
Can the Walleye pollock hear the ship coming?
Normally, YES! Fish easily hear the low frequency noises emitted from ships.
A comparison of hearing ranges for various organisms showing the anthropogenic source noise overlap (courtesy of oceannavigator.com).
If you are operating a research vessel trying to get an accurate estimate on how many fish are in a population, and those fish are avoiding you because they hear you coming, you will end up with artificially low populations estimates! The International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES) established noise limits for research vessels that must be met in order to monitor fish populations without affecting their behavior. Fish normally react to a threat by diving, and that reduces their reflectivity or target strength, which reduces the total amount of backscatter and results in lower population estimates (see my last blog).
A comparison of two ships and fish reaction to the noise produced by each. The Oscar Dyson has a diesel electric propulsion system as one of its noise reduction strategies. Notice the smaller noise signature (in blue) and fewer fish avoiding (diving) when the ship approaches (www.uib.no).
That is why NOAA has invested in noise-reducing technology for their fish survey fleet. The Oscar Dyson was the first of five ships build with noise-reducing technology. These high-tech ships have numerous strategies for reducing noise in the range that fish might hear.
There are two main sources of engine noise onboard a ship: machinery noise and propeller noise.
The two main sources of ship noise. (www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/acoustics/session2_fischer.pdf)
The best acoustic ship designs are going to address the following:
1) Address hydrodynamics with unique hull and propeller design.
2) Use inherently quiet equipment and choose rotating rather than reciprocating equipment.
3) Use dynamically stiff foundations for all equipment (vibration isolation).
4) Place noisier equipment toward the centerline of the ship.
5) Use double-hulls or place tanks (ballast and fuel tanks) outboard of the engine room to help isolate engine noise.
6) Use diesel electric motors (diesel motors operate as generators while electric motors run the driveshaft.
The U.S. Navy designed the Oscar Dyson’s hull and propeller for noise quieting. This propeller is designed to eliminate cavitation at or above the 11 knot survey speed. Not only does cavitation create noise, it can damage the propeller blades.
Photo of cavitation caused by a propeller. These air bubbles that form along the edge of the blades can cause damage to the propeller and cause excess noise. (www.thehulltruth.com/boating-forum/173520-prop-cavitation-burn-marks.html)
The Oscar Dyson’s hull has three distinguishing characteristics which increase its hydrodynamics and reduce noise by eliminating bubble sweep-down along the hull. The Oscar Dyson has no bulbous bow, has a raked keel line that descends bow to stern, and has streamlined hydrodynamic flow to the propeller.
To reduce a ship’s noise in the water, it is absolutely crucial to control vibration. The Oscar Dyson has four Caterpillar diesel gensets installed on double-stage vibration isolation systems. In fact, any reciprocating equipment onboard the Oscar Dyson is installed on a double-stage vibration isolation system using elastomeric marine-grade mounts.
A picture of one of the Caterpillar diesel generators before installation in the Oscar Dyson. Notice the double vibration isolation sleds to reduce noise (www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/acoustics/session2_fischer.pdf).
Since the diesel engines are mounted on vibration isolation stages, it is necessary to also incorporate flexible couplings for all pipes and hoses connecting to these engines.
A look at one of the four diesel generators onboard the Oscar Dyson. Notice the black flexible hose couplings in place to allow vibration isolation in the white pipes.
Any equipment with rotating parts is isolated with a single-stage vibration system. This includes equipment like the HVAC, the electric generators for the hydraulic pumps, and the fuel centrifuges that remove any water and/or particles from the fuel before the fuel is pumped to the diesel generators.
A close-up of the single sled vibration isolation system supporting the hydraulic pumps that run the deck winches.
Low Noise Equipment:
The only equipment that does not use vibration isolation stages are the two Italian-made ASIRobicon electric motors that are mounted in line with the prop shaft. Both are hard-mounted directly to the ship because they are inherently low-noise motors. This is one of the benefits of using a diesel-electric hybrid system. The diesel motors can be isolated in the center of the ship, near the centerline and away from the stern. The electric motors can be located wherever they are needed since they are low noise.
Even the propeller shaft bearings are special water-lubricated bearings chosen because they have a low coefficient of friction and superior hydrodynamic performance at lower shaft speeds resulting in very quiet operation. They use water as a lubricant instead of oil so there is a zero risk of any oil pollution from the stern tube.
Acoustic Insulation and Damping Tiles:
The Oscar Dyson uses an acoustic insulation on the perimeter of the engine room and other noisy spaces. This insulation has a base material of either fiberglass or mineral wool. The middle layer is made of a high transmission loss material of limp mass such as leaded vinyl.
The Oscar Dyson also has 16 tons of damping tiles applied to the hull and bulkheads to reduce noise.
All of these noise-reducing efforts results in a fully ICES compliant research vessel able to survey fish and marine mammal populations with minimal disturbance. This will help set new baselines for population estimates nationally and internationally.
I found out drills aboard ships are serious business! Unlike a fire drill at school where students meander across the street and wait for an “all clear” bell to send them meandering back to class, fire drills on a ship are carefully executed scenarios where all crew members perform very specific tasks. When out at sea, you cannot call the fire department to rescue you and put out a fire. The crew must be self-reliant and trained to address any emergency that arises. When we had a fire drill, I received permission from Commanding Officer Boland to leave my post (after I checked in) and watch as the crew moved through the ship to locate and isolate the fire. They even used a canister of simulated smoke to reduce visibility in the halls similar to what would be experienced in a real fire!
Robert and Libby suit up during a fire drill!
Late last night, we finished running our transects! Our last trawl on transect was a bottom trawl which brought up some crazy creatures! Here are a couple of photos of some of the critters we found.
From left to right, Blue King Crab (Paralithodes platypus), Alaska Plaice (Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus), Red Irish Lord eating herring on the sorting table (Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus), and Skate (unidentified).
Next blog will probably be my last from Alaska. T-T
Latitude: 60°55’68″ N
Longitude: 179°34’49″ E
Ship speed: 11 knots (12.7 mph)
Weather Data from the Bridge
Wind Speed: 10 knots (11.5 mph)
Wind Direction: 300°
Wave Height: 2-4 ft with a 4-6 ft swell
Surface Water Temperature: 8.7°C (47.6°F)
Air Temperature: 8°C (46.4°F)
Barometric Pressure: 1013 millibars (1 atm)
Science and Technology Log
Previously, we learned how the biological trawl data onboard the NOAA Research Vessel Oscar Dyson are collected and analyzed to help calculate biomass of the entire Bering Sea Walleye pollock population. Last blog, I mentioned that the scientific method for estimating the total pollock biomass is not complete without acoustics data, more specifically hydroacoustics! In fact, hydroacoustic data are the real key to estimating how many pollock are in the Bering Sea! That is why our mission is called the Alaskan Pollock Midwater ACOUSTIC-trawl Survey.
Screenshot showing our transects on leg 3 of the pollock midwater acoustic survey. Fish icons indicate where we validated acoustic data with biological sampling. Hydroacoustic data were collected continuously along north/south transects.
The Oscar Dyson is using hydroacoustics to collect data on the schools of fish in the water below us, but we do not know the composition of those schools. Hydroacoustics give us a proxy for the quantity of fish, but we need a closer look. The trawl data provide a sample from each aggregation of schools and allow the NOAA scientists that closer look. The trawl data explain the composition of each school by age, gender and species distribution. Basically, the trawl data verifies and validates the hydroacoustic data. The hydroacoustics data collected over the entire Bering Sea in systematic transects combined with the validating biological data from the numerous individual trawls give scientists a very good estimate for the entire Walleye pollock population in the Bering Sea.
So what is hydroacoustics and how does it work???
Hydroacoustics (“hydro” = water, “acoustics” = sound) is the field of study that deals with underwater sound. Remember, sound is a form of energy that travels in pressure waves. Sound travels roughly 4.3 times faster in water than in air (depending on temperature and salinity of the water). Here is a link with an interactive animation comparing the speed of sound in water, air, and steel! This change in speed will become very important later… keep reading!
Lower sound frequencies travel farther. This is how humpback whales can communicate over great distances with their whale songs! Click on whale songs to hear one!
Whales are not the only aquatic organisms to use sound! Much like dolphins use sound to echo-locate, people use technology to “see” under water using sound energy. We call this technology SONAR (Sound Navigation And Ranging).
An animation of dolphin echo-location (courtesy of Discovery of Sound in the Sea).
On a typical recreational watercraft, this technology can be found in the form of a “fish-finder.”
Recreational “fish-finders” can be found on many personal watercraft (courtesy of Discovery of Sound in the Sea).
In commercial fishing, this technology is used in much the same way, just on a larger scale. Here is an animation showing a commercial trawler using SONAR to locate fish.
Commercial fishing boat using hydroacoustics to locate fish. This animation illustrates how a fish shows up as an arch on the onboard display (courtesy of Discovery of Sound in the Sea).
The Oscar Dyson has a much more powerful, extremely sensitive, carefully calibrated, scientific version of what many people have on their bass boats. These are mounted on the pod, which is on the bottom of the centerboard, the lowest part of the ship. The Oscar Dyson has an entire suite of SONAR instrumentation including the five SIMRAD EK60 transducers located on the bottom of the centerboard that operate at different Khertz, the SIMRAD ME70 multibeam transducer located on the hull, and a pair of SIMRAD ITI transducers on the trailing edge of the centerboard (one pointed toward the starboard side, the other toward port).
Illustration of the Oscar Dyson showing the hydroacoustic transducers located on the centerboard and the hull of the ship.
This “fish-finder” technology works by emitting a sound wave at a particular frequency and waiting for the sound wave to bounce back (the echo) at the same frequency. The time between sending and receiving the sound wave determines how far away an object is, whether it be the bottom or fish. When the sound waves return from a school of fish, the strength of the returning echo helps determine the fish density (how many fish are there).
An echogram taken from the Oscar Dyson. Shades of yellow and red show extremely large, dense schools of fish. The solid red at the bottom of the picture is the bottom of the sea which is at 94.12 meters at this location.
Another piece of the puzzle… how reflective an individual fish is to sound waves. This is called target strength. Each fish reflects sound energy sent from the transducers, but why? For fish, we rely on the swim bladder, the organ that fish use to stay buoyant in the water column. Since it is filled with air, it reflects sound very well. When the sound energy goes from one medium to another, there is a stronger reflection of that sound energy. The bigger the fish, the bigger the swim bladder; the bigger the swim bladder, the more sound is reflected and received by the transducer. We call this backscatter, or target strength, and use it to estimate the size of the fish we are detecting. This is why fish that have air-filled swim bladders show up nicely on hydroacoustic data while fish that lack swim bladders (like sharks), or that have oil or wax filled swim bladders (like Orange Roughy) have weak signals.
X-ray of fish showing the presence of a swim bladder (courtesy of DeAnza College).
Target strength is how we determine how dense the fish are in a particular school. Scientists take the backscatter that we measure from the transducers and divide that by the target strength for an individual and that gives you the number of individuals that must be there to produce that amount of backscatter. 100 fish produce 100x more echo than a single fish. We extrapolate this information to all the area of the Bering Sea to estimate the pollock population.
A close look at part of Transect 27. In this echogram, the area backscatter numerical values are included. At the top of the water column, you can see what are probably jellyfish which have little backscatter since they have no swim bladders. Along the bottom are groundfish. In the center of the water column are several large schools of Walleye pollock with strong backscatter. The square that has a value of 2403.54 shows several large schools!
So the goal is to measure the hydroacoustic density along each transect and extrapolate that data to represent the entire survey area between transects (the area not sampled because the Oscar Dyson can’t cover every square meter of the Bering Sea). When you combine the hydroacoustic data for all of the 30 transects (a total of ~5,000 nautical miles in an area of 100,000 square nautical miles) and the lengths collected in the biological trawl data, you can convert the length data into target strength data to create a distribution of target strengths and find the average target strength for the population. In doing so, you get a complete picture of the Walleye pollock population in the Bering Sea.
The BIG picture. This is the combination of hydroacoustic data and biological trawl data analyzed to show what the entire walleye pollock population looked like for 2009 (courtesy of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center www.afsc.noaa.gov/Publications/ProcRpt/PR2010-03.pdf). Analysis is still being done on the current survey. This year’s results will be out in a report this fall. Expect some changes!
But there’s more!!! Scientists ALSO use hydroacoustic data when trawling to determine if they have caught a large enough sample size to collect fish length data to validate their target strength data. If you recall reading my first blog from sea that taught about the parts of the net, I wrote about and had a drawing of the “kite” on which the “turtle” was attached. The “turtle” is a SIMRAD FS70 trawl SONAR. It has a downward facing transponder that shows a digital “picture” of the size of the net opening. You can also see individual fish and/or schools of fish enter the net by watching this display. Since the scientists only need about 300 fish for a statistically significant sample, they watch this screen carefully so that they do not take more fish than they need. When the lead scientist thinks there are enough fish in the net, she gives the request to the Officer on Deck to “haul back.” Unlike commercial trawlers, a typical trawl on the Oscar Dyson only lasts 25 minutes. Sometimes, we are only officially fishing for 5 minutes if we pull through a large school.
Sonar while trawling
What are the data telling us?
The Walleye pollock data suggest that the population is currently stable; however, there is some evidence of pollock in waters that have traditionally been north of their uppermost documented population range. Are warmer waters due to climate change to blame for this possible shift? Here is an interesting article that addresses this issue and raises several other trends regarding pollock population response to changes in food source and predation due to climate change. Click on the picture to open the article!
How might climate change affect fish sticks? Click on the picture to read more!
The economic and ecological implications of a shifting pollock population range are a bit unsettling. Fish do not know political boundaries. As the pollock population range possibly shifts north, more of that range will lie within Russian waters than in previous years. This may hurt the U.S. commercial fishing industry as they settle for less of a resource that was once abundant. Since quotas are set based on last year’s numbers, there is a time lag which may result in overfishing in U.S. waters that might lead to a collapse in the Alaskan Walleye pollock fishing industry. The U.S. has invested a tremendous amount of research into maintaining a sustainable pollock fishery. Other countries may be responding to a variety of factors in which sustainability is just one when they are managing pollock stocks and setting catch quotas. Since pollock is a trans-boundary stock, this could lead to greater uncertainty in management of the entire population if pollock increasingly colonize more northern Bering Sea waters as influenced by climate change.
Food for thought…
Next blog, we will learn about cutting edge technology that may eventually make hauling back fish and collecting biological fish data on board the acoustic survey missions obsolete.
It’s tomorrow, TODAY! This morning at 6am Alaska Time, we crossed the International Date Line (IDL). The IDL is at 180° longitude. General Vessel Assistant Brian Kibler and I went out to the bow of the ship so we would be the first onboard to cross the line!
Map of the Bering Sea showing both the International Date Line and the 180th longitude. Our closest point to Russia was 12 nautical miles from Cape Navarin which is very close to 180 longitude.
Over the next two days, our transects take us back and forth over the IDL 3 more times. Fortunately, onboard our Oscar Dyson time warp machine we simply observe the Alaska Time Zone (the time zone from our port of call). With everyone onboard operating different shifts, and with 24/7 operations, it would be quite confusing if we kept changing our clocks to observe the local time zone.
The Order of the Golden Dragon!
Mariners who cross the IDL when at sea are inducted into the “Order of the Golden Dragon” and receive a certificate with the details of this momentous crossing. There are several other notorious crossing that receive special recognition. They are:
▪ The Order of the Blue Nose for sailors who have crossed the Arctic Circle.
▪ The Order of the Red Nose for sailors who have crossed the Antarctic Circle.
▪ The Order of the Ditch for sailors who have passed through the Panama Canal.
▪ The Order of the Rock for sailors who have transited the Strait of Gibraltar.
▪ The Safari to Suez for sailors who have passed through the Suez Canal.
▪ The Order of the Shellback for sailors who have crossed the Equator.
▪ The Golden Shellback for sailors who have crossed the point where the Equator crosses the International Date Line.
▪ The Emerald Shellback or Royal Diamond Shellback for sailors who cross at 0 degrees off the coast of West Africa (where the Equator crosses the Prime Meridian)
▪ The Realm of the Czars for sailors who crossed into the Black Sea.
▪ The Order of Magellan for sailors who circumnavigated the earth.
▪ The Order of the Lakes for sailors who have sailed on all five Great Lakes.
Latitude: 61°12’61″ N
Longitude: 178°27’175″ W
Ship speed: 11.6 knots (13.3 mph)
Weather Data from the Bridge
Wind Speed: 11 knots (12.7 mph)
Wind Direction: 193°
Wave Height: 2-4 ft (0.6 – 1.2 m)
Surface Water Temperature: 8.3°C ( 47°F)
Air Temperature: 8.5°C (47.3°F)
Barometric Pressure: 999.98 millibars (0.99 atm)
Science and Technology Log
At the end of last blog, I asked the question, “What do you do with all these fish data?”
The easy answer is… try and determine how many fish are in the sea. That way, you can establish sustainable fishing limits. But there is a little more to the story…
Historically, all fisheries data were based on length. It is a lot easier to measure the length of a fish than to accurately determine its weight on a ship at sea. To accurately measure weight on a ship, you have to have special scales that account for the changes in weight due to the up and down motion of the ship. Similar to riding a roller coaster, at the crest of a wave (or top of a hill on a roller coaster), the fish would appear to weigh less as it experiences less gravitational force. At the trough of a wave (or bottom of a hill on a roller coaster), the fish would experience more gravitational force and appear to weigh more. Motion compensating scales are a more recent invention, so, historically, it was easier to just measure lengths.
One of the motion-compensating scales onboard the Oscar Dyson.
For fisheries management purposes, however, you want to be able to determine the mass of each fish in your sample and inevitably the biomass of the entire fishery in order to decide on quotas to determine a sustainable fishing rate. So, you need to be able to use length data to estimate mass. Here is where science and math come to the rescue! By taking a random sample that is large enough to be statistically significant, and by using the actual length and weight data from that sample, you can create a model to represent the entire population. In doing so, you can use the model for estimating weights even if all you know is the lengths of the fish that you sample. Then you can extrapolate that data (using the analysis of your acoustic data – more on this later) to determine the entire size of the pollock biomass in the Bering Sea.
How do they do that? First, you analyze and plot the actual lengths vs. weights of your random sample and your result is a scatter-plot diagram that appears to be an exponential curve.
Scatterplot showing observed Walleye pollock weights and lengths for a sample of the population.
Then you create a linear model by log-transforming the data. This gives you a straight line.
Linear regression of the Walleye pollock length and weight data.
Next, you back-transform the data into linear space (instead of log space) and you will have created a model for estimating weight of pollock if all you know are the lengths of the fish. This is close to a cubic expansion which makes sense because you are going from a one-dimensional measurement (length) to a 3-dimensional measurement (volume).
Observed weight and length data showing the model for predicting weight if all you know are lengths.
Scientists can now use this line to predict weights from all of their fish samples and then extrapolate to determine the entire biomass of Walleye pollock population in the Bering Sea (when combined with acoustic data… coming up in the next blog!) when the majority of the data collected is only fish lengths.
Another interesting question… How does length change with age? Fish get bigger as they get older, all the way until they die, which is different from mammals and birds. However, some individual fish grow faster than others, so the relationship between age and length gets a little complicated. How do you determine the age distribution of an entire population when all you are collecting are lengths?
Several age classes of Alaskan pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). Can you tell which one is youngest? Are you sure???
Just like weight, you can determine the age from a subset of fish and apply your results to the rest. This works great with young fish that are one year old. The problem is… once you get beyond a one-year-old fish, using lengths alone to determine age becomes a little sketchy. Different fish may have had a better life than others (environmental/ecological effects) and had plenty to eat, great growing conditions, etc and be big for their age relative to the rest of the population. Some may have had less to eat and/or unfavorable conditions such as high parasite loads leading them to be smaller… There are also other things to consider such as genetics that affect length and growth rate of individuals. Here is where the collection of otoliths becomes important. By collecting the otoliths with the lengths, weights, and gender data, the scientists can look at the age distributions within the population. The graph below shows that if a pollock is 15 cm long, it is clearly a 1 year old fish. If a pollock is 30 cm long, it might be a 2 year old, a 3 year old, or a 4 year old fish, but about 90% of fish at this length will be 3 years old. If a fish is 55 cm long, it could be anywhere from 6 to 10+ years old!
Graph showing age proportions of the Walleye pollock population when compared to length data.
Collection of otoliths is the only way to accurately determine the age of the fish in the random sample and be able to extrapolate that data to determine the estimated age of all the pollock in the fishery. Here is a photo comparing otolith size of Walleye pollock with their lengths.
A comparison of otolith sizes. These otoliths were taken from fish that were 12.5cm, 24.5cm, 30.5cm, 39.0cm, 55.5cm, and 70.0cm counter clockwise from top, respectively.
If we wanted to find out exactly how old each of these fish were, we would need to break the otoliths in half to look at a cross section. Below is what a prepared otolith looks like (courtesy of Alaska Fisheries Science Center). You can try counting rings yourself at their interactive otolith activity found here.
Cross section of Walleye pollock otolith after being prepared (courtesy of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center).
All of these data go into a much more complicated model (including the acoustic-trawl survey walleye pollock population estimates) to accurately estimate the total size of the fishery and set the quotas for the pollock fishing industry so that the fishery is maintained in a sustainable manner.
Next blog, we will learn about how the various ways acoustic data fit into this equation to create the pollock fishery model!
Ok, so here is a long overdue look at the NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson that I am calling home for three weeks. I was pleasantly surprised when I saw my state room. It is bigger than I thought it would be and came with its own bathroom. I was also pleasantly surprised to learn I would be sharing my state room with Kresimir Williams, one of the NOAA scientists and an old college friend of mine! Here is a picture of our room.
My state room on the Oscar Dyson. The curtains around each bunk help block out light.
The room has a set of bunk beds. Thankfully, my bed is on the bottom. I do not know how I would have gotten in and out of bed in the rough seas we had over the last couple of days. If I do fall out of bed, at least I will not have far to fall. Last year, the ship rocked so hard in rough seas that one of the scientists fell head first out of the top bunk! The room also had two lockers that serve as closets, a desk and chair, and our immersion suits (the red gumby suits). The bathroom is small and the shower is tiny! Notice the handles on the wall. These are really handy when trying to shower in rough seas!
The bathroom in my state room. Notice the essential handles.
Next, we have the Galley or Mess Hall. This is where we have all of our meals prepared by Tim and Adam. Notice that all of the chairs have tennis balls on the legs and that each chair has a bungee cord securing it to the floor! There are also bungee cords over the plates and bowls. Everything has to be secured for rough seas.
The Mess Hall, also known as “The Galley.”
The chairs in the galley have tennis balls on their feet and have bungee cords holding them down so they will not move during high seas.
The coffee bar and snack bar in the galley.
The Mess Hall also has a salad bar, cereal bar, sandwich fixings, soup, snacks like cookies, and ice cream available 24 hours a day. No one on board is going hungry. The food has been excellent! We have had steaks, ribs, hamburgers and fish that Tim has grilled right out on deck. Here is a picture of my “surf and turf” with a double-baked potato.
“Surf and Turf” meal, courtesy of Stewards Tim and Adam. Yummy!
Most of my work here on board (other than processing fish) has been in the acoustics lab, also known as “The Cave” since it has no windows. This is where the NOAA scientists are collecting acoustic data on the schools of fish and comparing the acoustic data with the biological samples we process in the fish lab.
The acoustics lab, also known as “The Cave” since it has no windows.
I also spend some time up on the Bridge. From the Bridge, you can see 10 to 12+ nautical miles on a clear day. This morning, we saw a couple of humpback whales blowing (surfacing to breathe) about 1/4 mile off our starboard side! A couple of days ago (before the weather turned foul), we spotted an American trawler.
An American Trawler spotted in some foggy weather.
Today, we got close enough to see the Russian coastline! Here is a picture of a small tanker ship with the Russian coastline in the background!
Land Ho! A small tanker off the Russian coastline.
Here are some pictures of the helm and some of the technology we have onboard to help navigate the ship.
The “helm” of the Oscar Dyson.
Radar showing numerous Russian fishing vessels near the Russia coastline.
I have also spent some time in the lounge. This is where you can go to watch movies, play darts (yea, right! on a ship in rough weather???), or just relax. The couch and chairs are so very comfy!
The Lounge aboard the Oscar Dyson.
When you have 30 people on board and in close quarters, you better have a place to do laundry! Here is a picture of our very own laundromat.
The onboard laundry facilities.
All for now. Next time, I will share more about life at sea!
NOAA Teacher at Sea Johanna Mendillo Aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson July 23 – August 10, 2012
Mission: Pollock Survey Geographical area of the cruise: Bering Sea Date: Wednesday, August 1, 2012
Location Data from the Bridge: Latitude: 62○ 18’ N
Longitude: 178○ 51’ W
Ship speed: 2.5 knots (2.9 mph)
Weather Data from the Bridge:
Air temperature: 9.5○C (49.1ºF)
Surface water temperature: 8.5○C (47.3ºF)
Wind speed: 9.1 knots (10.5 mph)
Wind direction: 270○T
Barometric pressure: 1001 millibar (0.99 atm)
Science and Technology Log:
In the last few days, we have crossed into the Russian Exclusive Economic Zone, sampled, and are now back on the U.S. side! Unfortunately, students, there was no way for my passport to get stamped. There was no formal ceremony, and we will cross back and forth many times in the next two weeks as we do our science transects, collecting Pollock, but the science team took a moment to celebrate— and I snapped a quick picture of the computer screen.
Crossing into the Russian Exclusive Economic Zone!
I would now like to introduce you to one of the most simple and valuable tools we use on board to measure a sample of Pollock- the Ichthystick.
The one… the only… Ichthystick!
First, some background. Each day we “go fishing” 2-4 times with our mid-water and bottom trawls. “Trawling” simply means dragging a large net through the water to collect fish (and you will learn more about the different types of nets we use quite soon). After the trawl, we bring the net back on board and see what we have caught!
There are many types of data we collect from each catch- first and foremost, the total weight of the catch and the numbers and masses of any species we catch in addition to pollock. So far, we have collected salmon, herring, cod, lumpsuckers, rock sole, arrowtooth flounder, Greenland turbot, and jellyfish on my shifts! Our focus, though, of course, is pollock. For pollock-specific data, we keep a sub-sample of the catch, usually 300-500 fish, for further analysis, and we release the rest back into the ocean.
From this sub-sample, I help the scientists collect gender and length data. As I mentioned in my last post, we also collect otoliths from the sub-samples so that the age structure of the population can be studied back in Seattle. The most straightforward and obvious data, though, is simply measuring the length of the fish, which takes us back to the wonderful contraption known as the Ichthystick!
Now, scientists cannot determines the age of a pollock simply from measuring its length- there are many factors that determine how fast a fish can grow, such as access to food, space, its overall health, environmental conditions, etc. But, by collecting length data and combining it with age data from otoliths, scientists can begin to see the length ranges at each age class and the overall “big picture” for the population emerges.
And again, once the age structure and population size of pollock in the Bering Sea are determined for a certain year, management decisions can be made, commercial fish quotas are set for the upcoming fishing season, and there will still be a suitable population of fish left in the ocean to reproduce and keep the stocks at sustainable levels for upcoming years.
The Ichthystick logo… designed by scientist Kresimir!
So, it clearly does not make much sense to measure pollock with a ruler, paper, and pencil. To measure hundreds of fish at a time, the NOAA team has developed a simple yet ingenious measuring tool, powered by magnets, and transmitted electronically back to their computers for easy analysis- the Ichthystick!
The Ichthystick may simply look like a large ruler, but it consists of a sensor and electronic processing board mounted in a protective (& waterproof!) container. Inside, the sensor processes, formats and transmits the measurement values of each fish to an external computer that collects and stores the data.
Here I am…measuring away!
Interestingly, the board works with magnets and makes use of the property of magnetostriction.
With magnetostriction, magnetic materials change shape when exposed to a magnetic field. Magnetostrictive sensors can use this property to measure distances by calculating the “time of flight” for a sonic pulse generated in a magnetic filament when a measurement magnet is placed close to the sensor. Here, in the picture, I am placing the fish along the sensor and holding the measurement magnet in my right hand.
Do you see stylus (containing the magnet) in my right hand?
To determine the distance to the measurement magnet, the elapsed time between when I touch the magnet to the board to generate the ultrasonic pulse and when the pulse is detected by the sensor is recorded– and that time is converted to a distance (using the speed of sound in that material), which is equal to the fish’s length!
Now, the “measurement magnet” is referred to as the “stylus”, and it is a little white plastic piece, the size of a magic marker cap, which contains the magnet embedded into the bottom. You simply strap the stylus onto your index finger with velcro (so that the north pole of the magnet is facing down toward the sensor) and are ready to begin measuring! The magnet inside is a small neodymium magnet, chosen because it has a very strong magnetic field. Each time a measurement is recorded, a chime sounds, and I know I can go on to measuring my next fish! At this point, I have measured a few thousand fish!
Let’s continue our tour aboard the Oscar Dyson! I think it is fair to say that scientific research makes one hungry! I have enjoyed meeting Tim and Adam, the stewards (chefs) onboard the Dyson, devouring their delicious meals, and spending time talking with the officers and crew in the galley (kitchen) and mess (dining hall). As you can see from my picture, the first thing you notice are the tennis balls on the bottoms of the chairs! Why do you think they are there?
Look on the floor…
As in most things related to ship design, planning for rough seas is paramount! So, in addition to tennis balls, which stop the chairs from sliding around, there are bungee cords that attach the chairs to the floor. The dishes are also strapped down and most items are in boxes, bins, or behind closed doors. But do not let that fool you— there is a LOT of food in there! I have enjoyed many a midnight snack- fruit, yogurt, ice cream bars, cereal bars, cookies, and soup to name just a few. In addition, there is a salad bar and a selection of leftover dinner items available to reheat each night. Since I am on the 4pm-4am shift, I have been missing breakfast, and I have been told I must have at least one hot cooked-to-order meal before I depart!
Don’t be late… or you will go hungry!
The Mess rules!
I was a little surprised to see a mini-Starbucks on board too! It is quite a setup, complete with pictures and directions on how to make each concoction:
Which kind would you order?
Dennis, one of the Survey Technicians who works on the overnight shift with me, promised to make me a hazelnut latte if I could correctly predict the number of pollock in a trawl, Price-Is-Right style. I finally won a few nights ago….
Interestingly, there are no mechanisms in place to help the stewards cook in rough seas, but Adam assured me that he has never had a dinner for thirty slide off the grill and onto the floor! Adam has been working in the NOAA fleet for over 10 yrs., including 7 yrs on the Miller Freeman, the precursor to the Oscar Dyson. He has been onboard the Dyson for almost a year. Tim has just joined the Dyson on this cruise and was previously in our home state— aboard the Delaware out of Woods Hole, Massachusetts! Before joining NOAA, he worked on several supply ships that sailed across the world. Each has been quite friendly and helpful as I learn to navigate my way around both the ship and my new schedule. One of our frequent conversations is menu planning and the all-important-dessert on the schedule for each night. So far, I have enjoyed apple cobbler, pineapple upside down cake, snickers cake, carrot cake, brownie sundaes, oatmeal raisin cookies, and… Boston cream pie!
Assistant Steward Adam
Chief Steward Tim
Tim and Adam’s domain… the Galley!
One last Q: How many dozens of eggs do you think Tim and Adam will go through on our 19-day cruise with 30 people on board? Write your guess in the comment section and I will announce the answer in my next post…
Latitude: N 61°39’29″
Longitude: W 117°55’90″
Ship speed: 11.7 knots (13.5mph)
Weather Data from the Bridge
Wind Speed: 26 knots (30mph)
Wind Direction: 044°
Wave Height: 4 meters (12 ft)
Surface Water Temperature: 8.2°C ( 46.8°F)
Air Temperature: 7.4°C (45°F)
Barometric Pressure: 994 millibar (0.98 atm)
Science and Technology Log:
Last blog, we learned about the different trawl nets and how the NOAA scientists are comparing those nets while conducting the mid-water acoustic pollock survey. We left off with the fish being released from the codend onto the lift table and entering the fish lab. Here is where the biological data is collected.
Walleye pollock on the sorting table. Various age groups are seen here, including one that is 70cm long and may be over 12 years old! Most are 2 to 4 year olds.
The fish lab is where the catch is sorted, weighed, counted, measured, sexed, and biological samples such as the otoliths, or earbones, are taken (more about otoliths later in this post). First, the fish come down a conveyor belt where they are sorted by species (see video above). Typically, the most numerous species (in our case pollock) stay on the conveyor and any other species (jellyfish and/or herring, but sometimes a salmon or two, or maybe even something unique like a lumpsucker!), are put into separate baskets to weigh and include in the inventory count. In the commercial fishing industry, these species would be considered bycatch, but since we are doing an inventory survey, we document all species caught. Here are some pictures of others species caught and included in the midwater survey.
The goal of each trawl is to randomly select a sample of 300 pollock to measure as a good representation of the population (remember your statistics! Larger sample sizes will give you a better approximation of the real population). If more than 300 pollock are caught, the remainder are weighed in baskets and quickly sent back to sea. All of the catch is weighed so the scientists can use the length and gender data taken from the sample to extrapolate for the entire catch. This data is combined with the acoustics data to estimate the size of the entire fishery (more on acoustic data in a future post). Weights are entered via touch screen into a program (Catch Logger for Acoustic Midwater Surveys – CLAMS) developed by the NOAA scientists onboard.
The CLAMS display showing that I am “today’s scientist.”
The 300 pollock are sexed to determine the male/female ratio of this randomly selected portion of the population. Gender is determined by making an incision along the ventral side from posterior to anterior beginning near the vent. This exposes the internal organs so that either ovaries or testes can be seen. Sometimes determining gender is tricky since the gonads look very different as fish pass through pre-spawning, spawning, or post-spawning stages. When we determine gender, the fish are put into two separate hoppers, the one for females is labeled “Sheilas” and the hopper for males is labeled “Blokes.”
Making incision to determine gender on pollock sample.
Hopper for female pollock ready to be measured with the Ichthystick and entered into CLAMS.
We use an Ichthystick to then measure the males and females separately to collect length data for this randomly selected sample. Designed by NOAA Scientists Rick and Kresimir, the Ichthystick very quickly measures lengths by using a magnet placed at the fork of the fish’s tail (when measuring fork-length). This sends a signal to the computer to record the individual fish’s length data immediately into a spreadsheet and the software creates a population length distribution histogram in real-time as you enter data.
The Ichthystick with fingertip magnet used to quickly measure and enter length data into CLAMS.
A randomly selected subset of 40 pollock get individually weighed, length measured, sexed, evaluated for gonadal maturity and have the otoliths removed. Otoliths (oto = ear, lithos = bone) are calciferous bony structures in the fish’s inner ear. These are used to determine age when examined via cross-section under a dissecting scope. The number of rings corresponds to the age of the pollock, similar to rings seen in trees. The otoliths are taken by holding the fish at the operculum and making an incision across the top of the head to expose the brain and utricle of the inner ear. The otolith is found inside the utricle. Forceps are used to extract the otoliths, which are then washed and put in individual bar-coded vials with glycerol-thymol solution to preserve them for analysis back at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center.
Incision across the skull revealing the otoliths on either side of the brain stem.
One otolith from a Walleye pollock.
Watch this short video to see what the entire process of data collection looks like.
Processing pollock on the Oscar Dyson
So… why collect all of this data? How is this data analyzed and used? Stay tuned to my next blog!
Well, I can officially say… the honeymoon is over. The Bering Sea had been so extremely kind to us with several days of great weather while we had a high pressure system over us. We enjoyed spectacular sunrises and sunsets, cloudless days and calm seas.
Sunny skies and calm seas on the Oscar Dyson.
Now… we have a low pressure system on top of us. Last night, we experienced 35 knot winds and 12 foot seas. I have spent a lot of time in my room in the past 24 hours… Late this morning, the sun came out and the winds calmed down, but the barometric pressure was still very low (around 990 mbars) which basically meant we were in the center of the low pressure system (similar to the eye of a hurricane, but not as strong… thank goodness!). We had a few hours relief, but we are back to pounding through the waves as the wind picks back up. It will be another long and sleepless night for this landlubber…
On a positive note, we did see two Laysan Albatrosses (Phoebastria immutabilis) from the Bridge as the winds began to kick up. They seemed to really enjoy the high winds as they soared effortlessly around the ship. The Officer on Deck (OOD) also said he saw a humpback breaching, but by the time I got up to the Bridge, it had moved on…
Next blog, I will share pictures of my room, the galley, “the cave,” the Bridge, etc. Right now, I am just trying to hold on to my mattress and my stomach…
Ship speed: 3.8 knots (4.4 mph) currently fishing
Weather Data from the Bridge
Wind Speed: 6.9 knots (7.9 mph)
Wind Direction: 30°T
Wave Height: 2ft with 2-4ft swells
Surface Water Temperature: 8.7°C ( 47.7°F)
Air Temperature: 7.9°C ( 46.2°F)
Barometric pressure: 1005.8 millibar (0.99 atm)
The NOAA Research Vessel Oscar Dyson at port in Dutch Harbor, Alaska.
Science and Technology Log:
Since the main goal of this voyage is the acoustic-trawl survey of the mid-water portion of the Alaskan pollock population, I thought I would start by telling you how we go fishing to catch pollock! This isn’t the type of fishing I’m used to… Alaskan pollock is a semi-demersal species, which means it inhabits from the middle of the water column (mid-water) downward to the seafloor. This mid-water survey is typically carried out once every two years. Another NOAA Fisheries survey, the bottom trawl survey, surveys the bottom-dwelling or demersal portion of the pollock population every year. I will begin by describing how we are fishing for pollock on this acoustic-trawl survey.
The Oscar Dyson carries two different types of trawling nets for capturing fish as part of the mid-water survey, the AWT (Aleutian Wing Trawl which is a mid-water trawl net) and the 83-112 (a bottom-trawl net that is named for the length of its 83 foot long head rope that is at the top of the mouth of the net and the 112 foot long weighted foot rope at the bottom of the mouth of the net). One of the research projects on board the Oscar Dyson is a feasibility study that involves a comparison of the AWT and using the 83-112 bottom-trawl net as if it were a mid-water net. The 83-112 is much smaller than the AWT, so there is concern with the fish avoiding this net and thus causing a reduction in catch. While the bottom trawl survey acquires good information on the bottom-dwelling pollock using the 83-112 bottom trawl, if they also used this net to sample in mid-water they could help “fill in” estimates of mid-water dwelling pollock in years when the acoustic mid-water trawl survey does not occur.
Scale model of the Aleutian Wing Trawl (AWT) net courtesy of NOAA Scientist Kresimir Williams
When the net is deployed from the ship, the first part of the net in the water is called the cod end. This is where the caught fish end up. The mesh size of the net gets smaller and smaller until the mesh size at the cod end is only ½ inch (The mesh size at the mouth of the net is over 3 meters!).
The AWT is also outfitted with a Cam-Trawl, which is the next major part that hits the water. This is a pair of cameras that help scientists identify and measure the fish that are caught in the net. Eventually, this technology might be used to allow scientists to gather data on fish biomass without having to actually collect any fish (more on this technology later). This piece of equipment has to be “sewn” into the side of the net each time the crew is instructed to deploy the AWT. The crew uses a special type of knot called a “zipper” knot, which allows them to untie the entire length of knots with one pull on the end much like yarn from a sweater comes unraveled.
Cam-Trawl on deck, ready to be “sewn in” to the AWT.
The Cam-Trawl is now “sewn in” to the AWT and is ready to be deployed.
Along the head rope, there is a piece of net called the “kite” where a series of sensors are attached to help the scientists gather data about the depth of the net, the shape of the net underwater, how large the net opening is, determine if the net is tangled, how far the net is off the bottom, and see an acoustic signal if fish are actually going into the net (more on these sensors later, although the major acoustic sensor is affectionately called the “turtle”).
Close-up view of the AWT scale model to highlight the kite and the turtle that ride at the top of the net. The third wire holds the electrical wires that send data from the turtle to the bridge (courtesy of Kresimir Williams).
Once the kite is deployed, a pair of tom weights (each weighing 250 lbs), are attached to the bridal cables to help separate the head rope from the foot rope and ensure the mouth of the net will open. Then, after a good length of cable is let out, the crew transfers the net from the net reel to the two tuna towers and attach the doors. The doors act as hydrofoils and create drag to ensure the net mouth opens wide. Our AWT net usually has a 25 meter opening from head rope to foot rope and a 35 meter opening from side to side.
This picture shows the A-frame with the two tuna towers on either side. The AWT is being deployed down the trawl ramp on the stern of the ship.
The scientists use acoustic data to determine at what depth they should fish, then the OOD (Officer on Deck) uses a scope table to determine how much cable to let out in order to reach our target depth. Adjustments to the depth of the head rope can be made by adjusting speed and/or adjusting the length of cable released.
The scientists use more acoustic data sent from the “turtle” to determine when enough fish are caught to have a scientifically viable sample size, then the entire net is hauled in. Once on board, the crew uses a crane to lift the cod end over to the lift-table. The lift-table then dumps the catch into the fish lab where the fish get sorted on a conveyor belt. More on acoustics and what happens in the fish lab in my next blog!
The port side crane is lifting the cod end over to the starboard side where the lift-table will receive this morning’s catch.
WOW! What an adventure!!! So I must get you caught up on some of the happenings thus far. After a mix-up where my reservation was cancelled on the Saturday afternoon flight from Anchorage to Dutch Harbor and the threat of being stranded in Anchorage for another day, I finally made it to Dutch. The weather cooperated (which is not the case more often than not), and we landed on Dutch Harbor after a quick refueling stop in King Salmon. Since we landed after 8pm, we went straight to one of the few restaurants in Dutch Harbor and had a late dinner before heading to the Oscar Dyson for the night.
My flight after landing in Dutch Harbor, Alaska!
Sunday morning, we went with several of the scientists out to Alaska Ship Supply to get some gear. I picked up my obligatory “Deadliest Catch” shirt and hat as all tourists do here in Dutch Harbor. We made three trips to the airport throughout the day to see if some of the science gear and luggage came, but came back disappointed. On one of our trips to the airport, we had lunch at the airport restaurant. I had Vietnamese Pho, which is a beef noodle soup, but it wasn’t nearly as good as the Pho my wife makes. We also drove up the “Tsunami Evacuation Route” to an overlook where we could see all of Dutch Harbor and the town of Unalaska. Later, we drove around Unalaska and stopped to check out some tidal pools on our way back to the Oscar Dyson. In the afternoon, we checked out the World War II museum that was absolutely fascinating! I did not know Dutch Harbor was bombed by the Japanese and that so many American soldiers were stationed in the bunkers surrounding the harbor. For dinner, I had black cod (sablefish) at the Grand Aleutian Hotel. Yummy!
Overlooking Dutch Harbor after driving up the Tsunami Evacuation Route.
Monday we embarked on our adventure shortly after noon. We had to leave the dock because another ship was scheduled to offload there in the afternoon. The scientists’ equipment arrived on a late Monday morning cargo flight, but they didn’t make it to the ship on time!!! We couldn’t go to sea without them, so we deployed the “Peggy D” to go pick them up and bring them aboard!
The Peggy D brings our scientists Rick and Kresimir with their long-awaited research equipment to the Oscar Dyson so we may head out to the Bering Sea!
Once we had our missing scientists, we left the safety of Dutch Harbor and ventured into open water. On our way, we saw dozens of humpback whales! None of the whales breached (jumped out of the water), but several of them fluked (dove and put their tail out of the water).
A couple of humpback whales spotted as we were leaving Dutch Harbor.
We started our day and a half journey to get to the starting point of our survey transects (the end point of last month’s survey). On our trip out, we experienced 6 to 10 ft seas and a 25 knot wind. It was a “gentle” welcome to the Bering Sea, but I struggled to get my sea legs underneath me. Meclizine is great motion sickness medication, but it sure knocked me out. I feel better now that I am not taking anything and am used to the rocking deck. While we made our way to our first transect, we had a couple of emergency drills. Here I am with fellow Teacher at Sea, Johanna, in our immersion suits as we completed our abandon ship drill.
Relaxing in the lounge after putting on our “gumby” suits.
On Wednesday morning, we began our first transect and did our first trawl along the transect (more on that later). I learned how to work in the fish lab collecting biological data on the catch we brought on board. I have been struggling to adjust to both my shift, which is 4am to 4pm, and the fact that the sun sets around 1am and rises at about 7am.
In the fish lab processing Pollock! Did someone order fish-sticks?
Thursday morning I woke on time and observed the survey scientists and crew deploying the CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) rosette from the hero deck (on the starboard side).
Skilled Fisherman Jim is assisting with deploying the CTD.
We also had beautiful clear skies and I was able to see Venus and Jupiter. At sunrise, I saw the GREEN FLASH!!! It was a beautiful start to the day.
A Bering Sea sunrise!
We processed one mid-water AWT (Aleutian Wing Trawl) trawl that was all pollock, then switched to the 83-112 bottom trawl net (83 foot long head-rope and 112 foot long foot-rope) and pulled up a lot of jellyfish with our pollock.
Last night, I finally got a really good night sleep! This morning (Friday), I watched the CTD deployment again and learned more about the data being collected (more on this later). No spectacular sunrise this morning as it was the typical gray, foggy weather. I went up and spent some time on the bridge and Chelsea, our navigator/medic, taught me a lot about the instrumentation used for navigating the ship. There sure is a lot of technology on board!!!
A picture of the helm with some of the displays the OOD (Officer on Deck) uses to navigate the ship.
From the bridge, we saw a pod of Dall’s Porpoise feeding, splashing around, and moving fast! We processed another AWT trawl of pollock that had quite a few herring mixed in. We traveled further into Russian waters than originally anticipated as we tried to identify the northern boundaries of the pollock population to get the best picture of the entire pollock range. We spotted a huge Russian trawler from the bridge!
A Russian trawler! I took this picture through the lens of the CO’s (Commanding Officer) binoculars.
We then headed south again towards American waters, but needed to do a quick water column profile test. Since we did not want to stop to drop the CTD again, I got to deploy a XBT (Expendable Bathythermograph)! After all the talk about safety briefings, the use of ballistics, and outfitting me with every piece of safety gear we could muster, I got ready to fire the XBT!!! Turns out, when you pull the firing pin, the XBT just slides out of the tube… no fireworks, no big bang… just a small kurplunk as the XBT enters the water. We all had a good laugh at my expense. See, scientists know how to have fun!
Safety first!!! All decked out for the “fireworks” of shooting the XBT. My “was that it?” face says it all…
WOW! So I have just scratched the surface of our voyage thus far! Next time, I will give you a snapshot of what life was like aboard the ship.
NOAA Teacher at Sea
(Almost) Onboard NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson
June 29 – July 17, 2012
Mission: Pollock Survey Geographical area of cruise: eastern Bering Sea Date: June 20, 2012
That’s me and one of my loves: the periodic table!
My first post is supposed to be an introduction to me and what I’ll be doing for three weeks in the middle of the Bering Sea so here goes nothing! My name is Amanda Peretich, and I have been teaching biology, chemistry, and criminal science investigations (get it? CSI) at Karns High School in Knoxville, TN for the past four years. My route to teaching high school was probably not really traditional, but it’s provided me with plenty of adventures along the way, and if you know me, you know I love a good adventure!
I am so excited to arrive on the NOAA ship Oscar Dyson to participate in walleye pollock research in an acoustic trawl survey in the eastern Bering Sea (similar to this one from last summer) in a little over a week. You’ll hear plenty more about this research in the weeks to come. How am I able to do this? Well, NOAA (which is an acronym for National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) has a Teacher at Sea program that I had never heard of before last fall when I randomly found it in a Google search for summer teacher-y programs. Ahh, the wonders of the internet and technology! So I applied to the program (really kind of at the last-minute, which also hits on my procrastination problems), wrote some pretty good essays, had some amazing recommendations from people (shout out to Theresa Nixon and Anne Hudnall for what I can only imagine were the best letters ever!), and later found out I’d been selected as one of 25 teachers from across the U.S. for this amazing opportunity!
FUN FACT: Did you know that the Discovery show Deadliest Catch is filmed in the Bering Sea and that the operations base for the fishing fleet is in Dutch Harbor, Alaska where I will be leaving from? However, I think those rough seas on the show are due to filming during the fall and winter seasons, not summer. I’m sure I will update you in a later post about how crazy the waters are during July, but I will have to remember that it could be much more treacherous.
Not that I’ll be able to have so many photos in all of my blogs (being on a ship in the middle of the ocean = sporadic and slow internet access, thus less photos), but this little slideshow will hopefully tell you a little more about myself in picture form:
Each of my posts (which are limited to about every other day or every 3 days) aboard the ship will include a science & technology log and then a personal log, but we are also able to add additional sections as well. Help me choose which ones to add below! (sidenote: I chose the “sunset” background for the poll because of the birds in it – I hear there are plenty of birds in Alaska – now the palm trees and sun, you’ll want to replace with other trees and clouds)
Did I forget to mention that this experience is also the beginning of a new chapter in my life? My wonderful husband Michael finished his PhD in chemistry at the University of Tennessee and accepted a civilian chemist position in the fuels lab with NAVAIR in Patuxent River, Maryland. I finished out the school year and sold our house in Knoxville while he has been training and traveling to fun places like Pensacola, Florida, but I will officially move up to Maryland the day before I get on a plane for Alaska! Didn’t I say how much I love adventures and the unknown?
NOAA Teacher at Sea
Aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson
September 4 – 16, 2011
Mission: Bering-Aleutian Salmon International Survey (BASIS) Geographical Area: Bering Sea Date: August 28, 2011
Posing with the Albert Einstein statue on my first day as an Einstein Fellow in Washington DC
Before I begin my adventure, I should probably introduce myself. My name is Lindsay Knippenberg and I am currently an Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellow at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Washington, D.C. You might be asking yourself, what is an Einstein Fellow? The Einstein Fellowship is a year-long professional development opportunity for K-12 teachers who teach science, technology, engineering, or mathematics. Around 30 educators are placed within the federal government each year and our job is to inform our agency or office on matters related to education. Last year fellows were placed at the National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Energy, Department of Education, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and some fellows were even placed within the offices of U.S. senators. To learn more about what I have been working on as an Einstein Fellow check out the video below, or you can go to the NOAA Education website to view some of the resource collections that my office has made for educators this year.
My Freshmen even have energy during 1st Hour.
Before I came to Washington, D.C., I was a high school science teacher in St. Clair Shores, MI. At South Lake High School I taught Biology, Environmental Science, and Aquatic Biology. As a teacher, one of my goals was to get my students to take risks and make goals that take them beyond the city bus lines. Through my previous teacher research experience as a PolarTREC teacher in Antarctica, moving to Washington, D.C. for a year-long fellowship, and now traveling to Alaska to board a ship for the Bering Sea I hope to show my students that you can challenge yourself and step outside of your comfort zones and get big rewards. I am very excited to join the crew aboard the Oscar Dyson to learn about the science that is conducted on board a NOAA vessel and the careers that are available to my students through NOAA.
The Oscar Dyson will be my home for 13 days
So where am I going and what will I be doing? On Friday I will be leaving hot and humid Washington, D.C. for cool and breezy Dutch Harbor, Alaska. In Dutch Harbor I will board the NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson. The Oscar Dyson is one of NOAA’s newer vessels and is one of the most technologically advanced fisheries survey vessels in the world. As a NOAA Teacher at Sea I will have the responsibility of learning about the science that is done onboard the ship, helping the variety of scientists that are onboard with their research projects, and then communicating what I learned through a blog and classroom lesson plans. The main research project that many of the scientists will be working on is called the Bering-Aleutian Salmon International Survey (BASIS).
Chum Salmon and Walleye Pollock are two fish species that I will be seeing a lot of.
The BASIS survey was designed to improve our understanding of salmon ecology in the Bering Sea. We will be sampling the fish and the water in the Southeastern Bering Sea to better understand the community of fish, invertebrates, and other organisms that live there and the resources available to them. The survey has been divided up into two legs. The first leg is from August 19 – September 1 and Teacher at Sea, KC Sullivan, is onboard blogging about his experience. To learn more about BASIS and what lies ahead for me check out his blog. I will be sailing on the second leg of the “cruise” from September 4 – 16 and as a Teacher at Sea I will also be blogging about my experiences. I am very excited about lies ahead for me and I hope that you will follow my adventures as a NOAA Teacher at Sea.
NOAA Teacher at Sea
Staci DeSchryver Onboard NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson July 26 – August 12, 2011
Mission: Pollock Survey Geographical Area of Cruise: Gulf of Alaska, Kalsin Bay
Heading: 213.0 (Stationary)
Date: August 6, 2011, 11:24 pm
Weather Data From the Bridge: click to view station model Dry Bulb Temp: 10.8C
Wet Bulb temp: 9.9C
Skies: Partly Cloudy, Stratocumulus
Pressure: 1013.3mb, falling then steady
Science and Technology Log
As part of our stay on shore, we took some time to travel out to a place called Fossil Beach. Fossil Beach is located on the south-eastern side of Kodiak Island, on Chiniak Bay. It is a popular attraction on Kodiak because it is near the Kodiak launch complex (a defense missile base !) and it is a popular surf beach. I, however, find it incredible for a completely separate reason: an utter abundance of fossils!
There isn’t much background information to be found on Fossil Beach. The greatest extent one might find on the internet is “Drive southeast on the only road out of Kodiak. Find fossils.” To the layperson going out fossil hunting, that should be enough information. But for me, however…I wanted to know much more about the conditions of formation, the types of fossils found there, and the age of the rocks in which I was digging. As it turns out, if I wanted to dig up information on Fossil Beach, I would have to be as clever as I was the day I discovered so many of our extinct marine critter shells. This experience turned into a bit of a scientific research project for me, as I formed hypotheses, tested my predictions, and revised my original ideas based on new findings. This, kids, is science.
Walking around the outcrop gave some insights into the environment in which this rock strata formed. The fossils were definitely nested in dark, muddy shale. I noticed lots of mollusks, particularly clamshells, at first glance. Shells were deposited in big, thick, chunks and layers. What I noticed initially is that they weren’t really fossils. A fossil, by definition, has been mineralized to a certain extent. These weren’t. However, some scientists conclude that the actual fossilization process is not necessary to call a particular dead animal a fossil – the only requirement is an extended period of time locked up in a rock.
Here is just one example of the plethora of fossils found at fossil beach! it's hard to walk away and not try to find the story of these guys.
What are the criteria for fossil formation? A dead critter needs rapid burial and possession of hard parts. An anoxic environment helps, as well. Most soft-bodied critters do not survive the fossilization process, as their flesh will decay so rapidly that there isn’t enough time to fossilize. It is not unheard of, however, to find soft parts fossilized. For example, a fly or mosquito trapped in amber is considered to be a fossil – its entire body intact in the clear, honey-colored stone.
My first question, of course, was “what was the environment of formation for this particular set of fossils?” Meaning, what type of environment did these critters live in before they croaked? We can narrow it down to two distinct, but broadly categorized areas: land? Or sea? Well, let’s think for a moment about the standard conditions for fossil formation and use that to define the environment of formation. Criteria 1: Rapid burial. Criteria 2: Possession of hard parts. Criteria 3: Anoxic environment. Consider for a moment rapid burial. In what places may we find rapid burial? Volcanic eruptions? Maybe. Land or mudslide? Also a viable solution. The next step is to rule out (or in) these two options. In a volcanic eruption, the fossils would most certainly be nested in a layer of ash. In a mudslide or a landslide, these critters would be nested in coarse-grained rock like sandstone. In our mystery case, we have fossils buried in a shale – which is a fine-grained, silty rock associated with slow-moving or stagnant water. Neither of these options work.
Let’s try criteria 2 – possession of hard parts. These shells are mainly mollusk – in particular clam shells. Where do clams live? The water. It wouldn’t make sense for a clam to be fossilized in the middle of the desert, now would it? In addition, the presence of shale does not necessarily indicate rapid burial, but it does indicate that if it were at the bottom of the ocean, it would be undisturbed for many years as it was buried.
Criteria 3 – an anoxic environment. In this case, if a clam dies at the bottom of the ocean, it may be considered an anoxic environment, but not for certain.
Hypothesis: confirmed. These critters once roamed our seas, based on Criteria 2.
Here is an example of calcareous concretions - something I saw at fossil beach, and later used the article to confirm that this formation was indeed the Narrow Cape Formation. The Narrow Cape Formation is characterized partly by this conspicuous row of calcareous concretions. Two points for cross-referencing evidence to a published document! Woot! Minus two point for not putting something next to it for scaling purposes - the concretion is about the size of a soccer ball. Par for the course.
The next question to ask was “how long ago did the fossilization party take place?” This one is a little more difficult to answer, but with some stealthy sleuthing and some assistance from my fellow Teacher at Sea, Cat, we came to a reasonable conclusion regarding the time frame.
At first glance on a large geologic map of Alaska, Fossil Beach is described as a Paleozoic Era beach. However, this map was so broad and basic that if we were to “zoom” in on it right down to fossil beach, our perceptions would change about the age and conditions of formation.
I thought I saw large ammonite fossils at the beach, which would have confirmed my suspicions about a Paleozoic beach. What didn’t fit, however, was that the mollusk fossils were not “fossilized” – and a Paleozoic/Mesozoic fossil like an ammonite would make the rock layers any age between 542 and 206 million years old. Now, it’s not completely unheard of to find fossil in your midst that has retained all of its qualities and still be extremely old – there are a few fossils out there that are considered fossils, but haven’t “fossilized” in the traditional sense. But 206 million years? One would suspect that is plenty of time for a fossil to fossilize. It didn’t jive. This was my first clue that maybe this beach was much younger than the broad geologic map suggested.
The broad geologic map is a bit like a mosaic. When viewed from far away, all a person may see is the color “blue”. Up close, however, the intricate pieces that make up the mosaic are individually selected for their different shades and textures. With the broad geologic map of Alaska, I discovered it wasn’t detailed enough to give me the information I needed. At a distance, there is one big picture – the colors on the map key indicate that the rock formations that make up Kodiak are predominantly Paleozoic Sedimentary rocks. This is a bit like calling a brand new pair of Louis Vuitton peep toe black patent leather heels “shoes.” It just doesn’t do it justice.
After looking further, Cat found a great article published online that discusses the nature of the formation of the beach. (I will cite it at the end of the post). Most of the information following comes from that particular document.
The article also cites an abundance of microfossils. These could be an example of microfossils. They could also be nothing, but given the location, I'm pretty sure we have something, here.
The paper focuses on Sitkinak Island, an island just to the south of Kodiak, but it also mentions that the formation of rocks is one and the same. The Kodiak formation is just a bit younger. As it turns out, the rocks are deposited as part of the Narrow Cape Formation, a late Oligocene/early Miocene formation. This translates into somewhere on the order of 10 million years old or so. In particular, the paper cites the Juanian stage, which is the time frame that encompasses the last portion of the Oligocene and the first portion of the Miocene.
Even more interesting is that this paper reveals the type of ocean these particular fossils came from. They originated from the outer edge of the neritic zone to the continental shelf. If you recall, the neritic zone is the point at which the lowest of the low tide is all the way out to a depth of 200 meters. Furthermore, the study reveals that the water was a cool-temperate marine climate, which means that the warmest water at the surface was about 10oC for approximately 3-4 months out of the year.
It was great to uncover the mysteries of fossil beach. The only mystery remains is, what about the Ammonite I thought I found? At this time, I absolutely cannot reconcile what happened there. There are a couple of strong leads in terms of solutions to this question: first, it may not be an ammonite at all. Second, the broad geologic map does indicate Paleozoic sedimentary rock, which would be a perfect candidate for a critter like an ammonite. Maybe the ammonites were from a completely different rock formation?
This is the mysterious ammonite (?) fossil. I'm not sure anymore if this is what this large critter is. I hope someone out there can help shed some light on this mysterious former beast.
Until I get back to land and get my hands on a copy of the Roadside Geology of Alaska (I looked everywhere in Kodiak to no avail!) this will have to suffice for my level of satisfaction with respect to fossil beach. Check back to this blog often to see if my predictions were right!
Well, wouldn’t ya know it? A tsunami line is painted right on base here at the Coast Guard! There is no reason to travel or hike a ridiculous amount when you can just stay right here and visit. (However, for more information on ridiculous Alaskan hikes, please visit my other blog at www.mrsdisonaboat.blogspot.com – you’ll love it.) We did see the line on the first day, I just haven’t had time to blog about it again, plus it took a considerable amount of time for me to finally get up the nerve to ask someone to stop a car so I could snag a picture!
It didn’t look that imposing at first. At first glance, it looked like it was only about 3 or 4 feet from the ground. I thought to myself, “Gee, this doesn’t look so bad…” until I walked up to the line. It was bigger than I was! Holy cow! Even if I reached my arms all the way above my head, I couldn’t touch the lower portion of the line. The picture is extremely deceptive, that’s for sure! I thought about what it would be like to be a person who hears the siren warning of the impending emergency, and what it would be like to make for higher ground, hoping that however high you climbed would be enough to save you from the wicked influx of water.
Eesh… I am thankful that so few lost their lives, but the sight of that line is a bit imposing. Also (and not at the expense of the destruction, of course) wickedly, beastly cool.
Wow! The water level for this particular tsunami is enormous!
In other news, we have successfully thrown off the bow lines and set sail! We were supposed to head out yesterday, but then something went wrong with the water system, causing a delay, and then one of the officers got sick and had to go home. Luckily, we had a replacement officer standing by to take over. We are so sorry that she came down ill, but so grateful that we had someone to take over! As we left Women’s Bay this morning, I saw many otters playing about in the bull kelp. Those little critters are too dang cute for words! They poked their heads up for a few moments before doing a graceful backflip back in to the water. But the most impressive sight of all took place about thirty minutes after we set sail. Up on the flying bridge, we saw the telltale blow of a whale. This was followed by two or three playful fluke slaps on the surface of the water.
Here, you can see the breaching whale....wait...Marshmallow! Get out of the way! Just kidding, I didn't get a picture of the whale breach - that happens so quickly! I have a lot of respect for people who can get a snapshot of such a cool experience!
And then, because he (or she) was as excited as we were to be sailing, the whale performed for us the most impressive breach! You, go, sister! We like the ocean, too! In my fumbling wonder, I of course, took 9 or so pictures of the breaching whale using stop-motion photography for you to see below. Too bad Marshmallow is in the way.
I am so happy and thankful to be out on the sea. Now I see why people love it so much. It has an interesting dichotomy. On one hand, I feel so small – a large, blue, fog-covered expanse stretches out before me, nothing in sight for miles and miles. On the other hand, I feel enormous. As we left the bay, we traveled past the peninsula we had walked on so many times before. Along the shoreline was an oil spill containment kit stored in a freight-train style container. It looked so tiny from where we stood on the flying bridge. It was as if we swapped positions – now we were the behemoths, and the spill kit was nothing more than a busted up shoreside lego.
I’m fascinated by the scales of this magnificent place – more so about how I fit in to them. Everywhere I turn, the sizes of things – animals, projects, decks, horizons, anti-seasick meds, stories, waves, meals, ocean expanses, rock outcrops – everything, everything is large, even that which is the tiniest and seemingly insignificant. Here is the place where small things commit powerful acts – a tiny three-foot swell makes its presence known in more ways than one, and a small anti-seasick pill can keep me from worshipping at the feet of its effects. A big ocean can throw around an enormous ship, and a humpback whale can effortlessly cut through it with its imposing fins. A project seemingly small (at least in this context of one ship, one crew, one survey leg, and one set of scientists) can spread awareness about the health of our fisheries to a something the size of a nation. To top it off, we are completing it along the coast of our largest state – one that blends quietly in with our neighbors to the north, but not forgotten as a beautiful and expansive supplier of natural resources. Everything small is large out here, and everything large is large. For those who have spent too long at the dock, today they are home. For those who have never left a dock before, today we feel your freedom. And we love it, too.
*Information on Sitinak Island/Fossil Beach was summarized from the following:
Allison, Richard C. A late Oligocene or Earliest Miocene molluscan fauna from Sitinak Island, Alaska. United States Department of the Interior, Washington; 1981.
NOAA Teacher at Sea
Staci DeSchryver Onboard NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson July 26 – August 12, 2011
Mission: Pollock Survey Geographical Area of Cruise: Gulf of Alaska
Location: 57.43287 N, 152.28867 W
Heading: 241.2 (Stationary)
Date: August 3, 2011
Weather Data From the Bridge Overall Weather: Clouds and fog
Science and Technology Log
One of the most serious emergencies that can take place onboard a ship is a fire. The NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson has many security measures in place in the event of a fire while underway. During our time in port, the crew of the Dyson planned a ‘’Safety Stand Down” Day to review safety protocol for all types of emergencies, particularly what the crew should do in the event of such a serious issue.
Before we began discussing some of the features of fire-fighting and emergency equipment, we participated in a survival activity that will certainly be used for the first days of school in my AVID class. The activity consisted of a list of 15 items that we had in a mock abandon-ship emergency situation. We were supposed to rank order the items of greatest to least importance for survival. Some items were quite obviously important (water, food, and shelter, for example) and some were quite important but at first glance appeared to be about as useful as chewing gum. There was a third group of items that appeared to be important, but in reality, ended up being about as valuable as a lawn ornament. We rank ordered the items first on our own, and then formed groups of four or five to discuss our lists and come up with a group consensus of what is valuable. As I predicted, repurposing items was the name of the game and those seemingly useless chewing gum items realized their full potential for being used for some other function. Overall, I won! I will be accepting applications for spaces in my life raft in the event of an emergency. Preference will be given to those who can demonstrate strong paddling capabilities and have a deep aptitude for celebrity impersonations for entertainment purposes while on the raft. Although all candidates will be judged carefully, those who write detailed, yet succinct and poignant essays will be given highest consideration due to limited on-raft seating.
After we finished the safety exercise, we were given the opportunity to take a look at the fire-fighting gear. Think about this: what happens when there is a fire at home? It is usually detected by a smoke alarm, then, if there is time, the type of fire is determined. Did it start with grease in the kitchen? Or is it coming from an unknown source, maybe like an electrical fire? The type of fire will determine what can and cannot be used to put it out. If the fire can’t be put out quickly, the next step is to…call…the…fire…department. Now, think about this: What would happen on a ship in the event of a fire? Well, many people are typically on watch to ensure that fires don’t start to begin with. But fires can start on board in all of the same ways they can start at home. So, in preparation for this, the ship must be equipped not just for fire, but for all kinds of fire. If the fire can’t be put out quickly, the next step is to…call…the…fire…department…but wait! That really can’t be done. Who, then, do we call? (Not the Ghostbusters, but good try.) The crew doubles as the fire department. In fact, any person who is on the ship is a member of the fire-fighting team to a certain extent. My job is to be accounted for and stay the heck out of the way so the pros can do their job.
All of the crewmen are trained in firefighting procedures. There are two fire lockers, one fore and one aft of the ship. Inside the fire locker is a treasure trove of nozzles, hoses, and fire axes. They are ready for anything on the ship because they have equipped themselves with a variety of means with which to fight different kinds of fires.
Here, two members of the Oscar Dyson practice changing out air supply tanks.
What I found both interesting and important is that all of the hose lengths must be able to reach any connection on the ship so that all parts of the ship are covered in the event of a fire. This can easily be explained if you think about a poorly designed sprinkler system. If your sprinklers don’t cover all areas of the yard, you end up with conspicuous brown patches in the grass where the water doesn’t reach. However, if the sprinkler system is set up correctly, no brown patches exist. The Oscar Dyson requires that all of the hoses are long enough so that there are no “brown areas” on the ship. If appropriate and necessary, the hoses will pull seawater out directly from the ocean to fight a fire in favor of the purified water onboard. Usually, they prefer to use carbon dioxide to fight the fire. It’s relatively benign in terms of dangerous reactions that could potentially take place. For example, if there was a grease fire onboard, it wouldn’t make much sense to put water on it, but Carbon Dioxide would be a great option.
Next, we were given a demonstration of all of the nifty features of the firefighting gear. Ensign David Rodziewicz, the head safety officer, gave pointers on how to effectively put fire-fighting gear on. The goal is to be able to get in and out of fire gear in less than two minutes, with the ideal time being less than a minute. ENS Rodziewicz indicated that the most important way to be successful with suiting up is to have the gear properly set up – if boots are tipped over and gloves are strewn all over the place, not much will be accomplished in the time frame allotted – and being able to fight a fire quickly, while critical in all areas, is imperative on a boat. Where land-based fires are a tragic and sobering experience, there is often an escape. One can leave and go to a wide parking lot or out to the street away from the flames. On the ship, the only place to go if things really take a turn for the worse is the ocean. This is why timing is so important.There are some neat features on the fire-fighting equipment. The air supply tanks are equipped with a 45-minute supply of air. Most fire fighters are not expected to stay in an active fire area for that long, but the supply is large enough just in case there is a problem. There is no need to keep time while fighting fires. A “heads-up” display is clearly visible in the fire mask, with green, yellow, and red indicator lights representing the percentage of air left in the tanks. The batteries for the light displays are changed quarterly – an important thing to check off on a to-do list! Of all of the things to remember to do on a ship, it seems to me like that would be an easy task to forget. But, they never do. Another interesting feature is the communications system. Each fire-fighting mask has a built-in communications system, so there is no need to take a radio in to an area with flames. It’s almost like having a fire-fighting Bluetooth. Each coat is also equipped with a flashlight and an emergency nylon strap in case of an emergency. The neatest feature to me was the emergency bypass for the oxygen tanks. If a crew member runs out of air, he or she can “latch” on to another person’s tank by ENS Rodziewicz utilizing a connector hose from the back of the rescuing party’s tank. This will give approximately a ten minute air supply, although points out that if one finds himself or herself in that kind of a situation, he or she should not be in a fire zone for an additional ten minutes. The emergency air supply is to safely remove a crew member only – not for fighting fires.One of the most useful ways to fight fire on a ship is to simply cordon off the area and then let the fire run its course in the offending room. On the ship, there are many fire-retardant walls built into the bulkhead. At that point, the fire fighters will utilize a tactic known as “boundary cooling.” When you shut off a single room in the ship, the above and below decks can still conduct heat. Therefore, the crew will spray a layer of ocean water in the rooms directly above and below the target area to ensure that the fire does not spread above or below floors. Water has a high specific heat, so it acts as an excellent energy absorber. This tactic is called boundary cooling, and is used often used in fire-fighting on a ship.Afterward, we watched the crew practice putting on, activating, and utilizing their fire-fighting equipment. Each person who is responsible for fire-fighting has a partner who assists him or her in getting suited up, changing out air supply tanks, and assisting in other duties as necessary.Here, Cat and I are pret-a-porte in our stylish life-saving devices. Will we go into the water? Check out my other blog to find out…
From there, the day got really exciting, but if you want to read about it, you’ll have to visit my other blog at www.mrsdisonaboat.blogspot.com– a quick hint: it involves a gumby suit and a big splash! It’s not for the faint of heart. Here’s a preview in the picture to the left. Also, be sure to check out Cat’s blog: www.blueworldadventures.blogspot.com to see what she’s been up to! Cat does some incredible cartoons that are really funny and informative, so she is capturing this adventure in a completely different light. We make a great team!
Will Cat and I make a big "splash?" Check out my other blog to find out!
Yesterday, Cat and I went out to Fort Abercrombie. Fort Abercrombie was an established World War II outpost that was designed to defend American soil in the event of an attack from the Axis Powers. We found this really interesting interpretive trail called the Wildflower Trail. Along the trail, there were informative signs about various wild flowers, their scientific name, their Inuit name, and uses for the roots, blossoms, stems, and leaves. After encountering a sign, it was a sure bet that we would see the celebrity flower just a few clicks up the trail. The trail carried us to a decrepit lookout post over the inlet that we could enter into and see what the defenders of our nation saw when they looked out on the glass blue waters of the bay.
Here at Ft. Abercrombie, Marshmallow busied himself by taking post in the military lookout. He claims he was scanning the air for potential threats to our borders. Since there are not imminent threats to Alaska at this juncture, I maintain that he stole Cat's binoculars to look for Salmon.
Old buildings stood steadfast, fighting reclamation by the forest while many had a legacy left only by a sign pounded in to a rotting foundation. Again, I found myself trying to tell the story of those who used to call this enchanted forest home.
We also (sound trumpets!) saw a Kodiak Brown Bear! There is a difference between a Brown Bear, a Kodiak Bear, and Grizzly Bear – mainly demographic. A Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) is called a brown bear because it is found in coastal areas. Kodiak Bears are the largest of the Brown bears and are found only on Kodiak Island. Inland bears (like the ones you find in Yellowstone) are called Grizzlies (Ursus arctos horriblis). Bears on boats are called Marshmallows. All bears (excepting Marshmallow himself) are in the genus Ursus. Brown bears, Grizzly Bears, and Kodiak Bears are Ursus arctos, while Marshmallow’s distant cousins to the north are Ursus maritimus. After discovering this as his namesake, Marshmallow was quite revolted. He has decided to write a strongly worded letter to the Linnaeus Society as the term maritimus paints a less menacing and voracious picture of polar bears than does the Grizzly’s namesake.
Marshmallow has been quite incorrigible since his discovery of his species name. I suggested that he attach this photo to his strongly worded letter, which paints him in a most frightening manner.
He has suggested instead to be called Ursus kickyerbuttus. I maintain that Marshmallow should be renamed Ursus domesticus stuffedus wimpus, because the closest he has ever been to a salmon run is from the comfort of his 60 inch HDTV. He has a stateroom for crying out loud.
As we drive along the road, we slow down to a crawl at all of the river crossings hoping to see Kodiak Bears. Our luck was good that day, because we saw three in a matter of about 4 hours. Here he is now.
This bear is not a Marshmallow. Nor is he a Pooh or a Yogi. Let me break this down into a simple equation: No stuffing + large + curious and furtive glances at surrounding humans + large teeth and claws = I should probably be further away than I am right now.
A fisherman nearby hypothesized he was a juvenile male, about 2 or 3 seasons away from his mamma and on his own as a hunter. He was pretty indifferent to the existence of people, but not menacing in any way. He ambled along, chasing after magpies and hopping in and out of the water. It was neat to see him up so close, but still have the safety of the bridge to keep us at a safe distance. This was of course, until he decided to climb up onto the road. He was quicker than I would have liked him to be!
After dinner, we were driving back to the ship along Women’s Bay and one ran out in front of the car! His shoulder blade was at the same level as the roof of the Impreza we were driving – no fish tale. He glanced casually at us and loped off into the trees toward the salt marsh. The next creek up the bay hosted a third bear, but we only got a glimpse of him as he was gone by the time we turned the car around. It was really a blessing to get to see (more than once!) such neat little critters. And by little critters I mean large toothed, long clawed beasts that have the capability to chew your head off in one fell swoop. Thankfully, they are more interested in salmon at this time of year, and really don’t have much of a taste for people. (In defense of Mr. Kodiak, there are more casualties from dogs in a given year than there are fatal maulings in ten years from Kodiak Browns. We would have much more to worry about if we tasted like Salmon or Salmonberries, as this is what comprises the majority of their diet. However, they should be treated with a healthy respect – especially a momma bear with her cubs.)
It has been an action packed week so far. We are hoping to learn as much as we can about the island while we are here, and we are making the best of being in port while we wait to set sail. It’s been wonderful to walk out on the peninsula every morning and have some time to myself to show gratitude for all that has been done for me to get me out here and experience this first hand. The standing joke when we witness something truly spectacular is to say “I think in my evaluation of the Teacher At Sea program I am going to suggest that they actually find places for us to go that aren’t so ugly. This place is such an eyesore…” I hope you sense the sarcasm dripping in my voice.
True or False? Sea Stars are Echinoderms that can regenerate lost body parts.
Answer: True. “Sea stars are remarkable, as they are able to regenerate lost or damaged parts of their bodies. An arm that is broken off can be regrown. Some species can actually regrow a complete new body from a single severed arm, if it is attached to part of the central disc.”
NOAA Teacher at Sea
(Almost) Onboard NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson July 26 – August 12, 2011
Mission: Pollock Survey Geographical area of cruise: Gulf of Alaska Date: July 23, 2011
Hello, from Denver, Colorado! My name is Staci DeSchryver, and I am an Honor’s Earth and Physical Science teacher at Cherokee Trail High School in Aurora, CO. Our school is the newest addition to the Cherry Creek School District family, but starting our ninth year is hardly enough to make us the babies any longer. We are an outstanding school with absolutely outstanding students, and I can’t wait to share this experience with them! I will be starting my eighth year teaching this fall, and my seventh year at CTHS. I’ve been around for a while, and Trail is definitely my teaching home.
This is a picture of me and my husband, Stephen!
I applied tor the NOAA Teacher At Sea program because our oceans are vast, largely unexplored, and a critical planetary resource. I love their mystery. More importantly, I love that we have the technology to uncover what hides beneath the surface. In addition, I am a firm and vocal believer that our ocean fish supplies are a lynchpin in our food supply. How so, you ask? I’ve broken it down into a simple and digestible equation:
Overfishing = fish can’t reproduce to keep up with the demand = fish become scarce = people starve = sad, hungry people.
Therefore, because few people on this planet enjoy being sad or hungry, NOAA (The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) works tirelessly to ensure that we have sustainable fish populations now and in our future.
As part of this tireless work, I have the chance of a lifetime — to sail on the NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson! The Oscar Dyson will be completing a stock assessment survey (data collection) on Walleye Pollock, a smart-looking fish that is a staple of the American (and world) diet. I am excited and nervous! I have never been on a ship before — not even a cruise ship! Come to think of it, I have never entered the ocean past knee-depth. (Thanks, Mom.) While the training has prepared me well, I know nothing can prepare me for the size, depth, and wealth of knowledge and surprises that are surely in store for me.
This is our family mascot, Marshmallow Bear. He usually is a stealthy bear who manages to become a stowaway on all of our travels. Something tells me this isn't the last you will see of him!
Please be sure to check the links to the Ship and the Mission! The sites there explain what we will be doing in clear detail.
As far as a little more information about myself, I am currently packing up, tying up loose ends at home, and making sure all of my electronic equipment is in working order before I leave. I have also just learned from a fellow TASer that using the word “boat” for a “ship” is quite improper etiquette and akin to swearing. How did I miss that? Therefore, I am currently seeking out synonyms for “ship” and “vessel” to keep my writing nice and spicy without angering anyone who holds my life in their hands.
The next time you hear from me, it will be from the Gulf of Alaska on my mission to help protect our fish populations, spread the word about scientific careers, and develop killer lesson plans that teach our students the science of Oceanography! Cheers!
NOAA TEACHER AT SEA CATHRINE PRENOT FOX ONBOARD NOAA SHIP OSCAR DYSON JULY 24 – AUGUST 14, 2011
Mission: Walleye Pollock Survey
Location: Kodiak, Alaska
Date: July 27, 2011
Weather Data from the Bridge
True Wind Speed: na
Air Temperature: 14° C dry/12° C wet
Air Pressure: na
Latitude: 57.44° N, Longitude: 152.31° W
Ship heading: n/a
(Limited data, as ship is in port)
I’ve received an in-depth tour of the ship and labs, and I am starting to piece together how the “Acoustic Trawl Survey” works. Basically, NOAA is responsible for monitoring the populations of walleye pollock and accomplishes this task in several ways. The acoustic trawl survey is one part of how this is done.
The science team identifies particular transect areas in the Gulf of Alaska. The ship travels to that area, then transmits acoustic signals about once per second as it travels along each transect. The returning echo gives scientists an initial measurement of the abundance of organisms in the water below the ship. Just “listening,” however, is not enough. We also have to sample populations physically to determine the ages, sizes, and species of the organisms. The ship trawls for these additional data.
A trawl is a large net towed behind the ship to catch fish and other organisms. The individuals (of all species) in the catch are identified and counted. Cameras (three) are mounted inside the back of the trawl (codend) to collect images as they pass through the trawl. From this larger catch, a sample of the walleye pollock (about 300 individuals) are dissected to determine sex, diet, measured (length and weight) for size and aged by looking at (yes) their ear bones or otoliths. I’ll cover all of this in depth once I have been able to do it and see it in action, but that is the gist.
I think first impressions are important. Alaska? Alaska is impossibly big and impossibly green. Too big, perhaps to describe with common adjectives. It took me about two days of travel from the 4-Corners to make my way up here: a Beechcraft 1900 from Cortez to Denver, then flights from Denver to Seattle and Seattle to Anchorage. I spent the night in Anchorage and wandered the city at midnight… …not that you can tell that it was so late from the pictures.
The next morning I took off from Anchorage and met up with the crew and scientific party onboard the Oscar Dyson in Kodiak, an island the size of Connecticut in the Gulf of Alaska
Adventures in a Blue World, Issue 6
As for how ‘impossibly green’ Alaska is, I was thinking about the reasons Georgia O’Keeffe gave for moving from New York City to New Mexico in 1949. She said (and I paraphrase) that she wanted to use more vibrant colors in her palette of paints than just green. Ms. O’Keeffe would have it rough here in Alaska: greens, greys and blues abound. Adventures in a Blue World Issue 6 may not convince you of the colors of Alaska, but I hope it gives you a grasp of its size.
Kodiak, Alaska dock
I’ve already settled in to the ship and my stateroom. My stateroom is small but comfortable, and I share it with a woman who is part of the scientific NOAA team. Interestingly, she worked for the same professor at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory in Gothic, Colorado as an undergraduate that I did. Very Small World.
We are docked in Kodiak for a few more days than anticipated: we are awaiting the arrival of another deck-hand, and there are a few repairs that need to be made to the ship. Once we get started, I will be working the 4am-4pm shift, and taking part in whatever science is taking place. In the meantime, I get to ‘nose around’ Kodiak, go for hikes and runs, check out museums (see below), and eat as many salmonberries as I can stuff into my mouth.
NOAA Teacher at Sea Anne Mortimer Onboard NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson July 4 — 22, 2011
Mission: Pollock Survey Geographical area of cruise: Gulf of Alaska Date: July 14, 2011
Weather Data from the Bridge Conditions: sunny and windy
Air Temperature: 10.1 ⁰C
Sea Temperature: 7.6 ⁰C
Wind direction: 237 ⁰C
Wind speed: 20 knots
Wave height: 2-3 ft.
Swell height: 5-6 ft.
Science and Technology Log
My last blog I said that I would talk more about the cam-trawl. This technology was created by scientists working on the pollock survey. The purpose behind the cam-trawl is to be able to put a net in the water with an open cod-end (basically a net with an opening at the end), and have images of the number, species, and size of fish that went through the net. Of course, sometimes some fish would have to be brought on deck so the otoliths and stomachs could be taken back to the lab in Seattle. Overall, this could eliminate taking so many research-based fish and/or invertebrate samples. When cam-trawl is used on acoustic-trawl surveys, the echograms can be matched up with the stereo-camera images which can provide more data about the distribution of fish or other marine organisms in the water.
How the cam-trawl works: it is a stereo-camera system that takes snapshots of whatever comes through the net. These images allow the research team (including me on this leg) to determine the approximate number, species (some, not all), and size of fish that go through the net.
This still image from the cam-trawl shows a salmon and pollock against a black “curtain.”
The pictures are taken at the same time, but because of the slight difference in camera position, they look similar but not identical. You can mimic this with your eyes by looking at an object with only your right eye, then switching to looking with only your left eye. Did you see the same object but from a slightly different perspective? This is called disparity, or parallax (astronomers often use parallax to estimate the distance of far-away stars or other celestial objects). The program that was written for the cam-trawl (also by this research team) can then calculate the approximate size of the fish based on their relative positions.
In this photo, I’m using the cam-trawl measuring program to measure a sample of fish.
This screen shot shows the stereo-images and the yellow measurements that I’ve added. Using the lengths that I’ve chosen for the program, it calculates the approximate length (in meters) of the fish.
After several windy days with lots of swell, I’m happy to be in calmer waters. I’ve been working on the computer for some of the time which doesn’t go well with swell. I have also found it to be very tiring and tense on my body to be in constant motion and prepared to grab whatever I can to stay upright. I can’t tell you how hard it is to use a treadmill or take a shower in rough seas! BUT, for the time being, it’s calm and I just watched a great sunset over Kodiak island with a few humpback whale blows in the distance. If you are still wondering about the salmon in the picture above, it’s a chum!
NOAA Teacher at Sea Kathleen Harrison Aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson July 4 — 22, 2011
Location: Gulf of Alaska Mission: Walleye Pollock Survey Date: July 15, 2011
Weather Data from the Bridge True Wind Speed: 34 knots, True Wind Direction: 284.43
Sea Temperature: 10.02° C, Air Temperature: 11.34° C
Air Pressure: 1014.97 mb
Latitude: 56.12° N, Longitude: 152.51° W
Sunny, Clear, Windy, 10 foot swells
Ship speed: 10 knots, Ship heading: 60°
Science and Technology Log
The Walleye Pollock is an important economic species for the state of Alaska. It is the fish used in fish sticks, fish patties, and other processed fish products. Every year, 1 million tons of Pollock are processed in Alaska, making it the largest fishery in the United States by volume. The gear used to catch Pollock is a mid-water trawl, which does not harm the ocean floor, and hauls are mostly Pollock, so there is very little bycatch.
A sample of pollock that the Oscar Dyson caught for scientific study. A "drop" in a very large "ocean" of pollock industry.
Although Pollock fishermen would like to make as much money as they can, they have to follow fishing regulations, called quotas, that are set each year by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC). The quotas tell the fishermen how many tons of pollock they can catch and sell, as well as the fish size, location, and season. The NOAA scientists on board NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson have an important role to play in helping the NPFMC determine what the quotas are, based on the biomass they calculate.
The quotas are set in order to prevent overfishing. Pollock reproduce and grow quickly, which makes them a little easier to manage. When fishing is uncontrolled, the number of fish becomes too low, and the population can’t sustain itself. Imagine being the lone human in the United States, and you are trying to find another human, located in Europe, only you don’t know if he is there, and all you have is your voice for communication, and your feet for traveling. This is what happens when fish numbers are very low– it is hard for them to find each other.
There are many situations where uncontrolled fishing has cost the fishermen their livelihood. For example, in the early 1900s, the Peruvian Anchovy was big business in the Southeast Pacific Ocean. Over 100 canneries were built, and hundreds of people were employed.
This graph shows how the Peruvian Anchovy catch rose to record heights in 1970, then collapsed in 1972. This could have been prevented by effective fishery management.
Scientists warned the fishermen in the 1960s that if they didn’t slow down, the anchovies would soon be gone. The industry was slow to catch on, and the anchovy industry crashed in 1972. The canneries closed, and many people lost their jobs. This was an important lesson to commercial fishermen everywhere.
The Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalchogramm) is a handsome fish, about 2 feet long, and greyish – brown. Most fishermen consider him the “dog” food of fish, since he pales in comparison to the mighty (and tasty) salmon. Nonetheless, Pollock are plentiful, easy to catch, and thousands of children the world over love their fish sticks.
Besides calculating biomass, there are 2 other studies going on with the Pollock and other fish in the catch. Scientists back at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) in Seattle are interested in how old the fish are, and this can be determined by examining the otoliths.
Here are 2 otoliths from a pollock. The one on the left shows the convex surface, the other shows the concave surface.
These are 2 bones in the head of a fish that help with hearing, as well as balance. Fish otoliths are enlarged each year with a new layer of calcium carbonate and gelatinous matrix, called annuli, and counting the annuli tells the scientists the age of the fish. Not only that, with sophisticated chemical techniques, migration pathways can be determined. Amazing, right? The otoliths are removed from the fish, and placed in a vial with preservative. The scientists in Seattle eagerly await the return of the Oscar Dyson, so that they can examine the new set of otoliths. By keeping track of the age of the fish, the scientists can see if the population has a healthy distribution of different ages, and are reproducing at a sustainable rate.
Another ongoing study concerning the Pollock, and any other species of fish that are caught during the Pollock Survey, deals with what the fish eat.
A pollock stomach is put into a fabric bag, which will be placed in preservative. Scientists at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center will study the contents to determine what the fish had for lunch.
Stomachs are removed from a random group of fish, and placed into fabric bags with an ID tag. These are placed into preservative, and taken to Seattle. There, scientists will examine the stomach contents, and determine what the fish had for lunch.
I learned about fishing boundaries, or territorial seas, today. In the United States, there is a 12-mile boundary from the shore marked on nautical charts. Inside this boundary, the state determines what the rules about fishing are. How many of each species can be kept, what months of the year fishing can occur, and what size fish has to be thrown back. Foreign ships are allowed innocent passage through the territorial seas, but they are not allowed to fish or look for resources. Outside of that is the Economic Exclusion Zone (EEZ) which is 200 miles off shore. The EEZ exists world-wide, with the understanding among all international ships, that permits are required for traveling or fishing through an EEZ that does not belong to the ship’s native country.
Everyone was tired at the end of the day, just walking across the deck requires a lot more energy when there are 10-foot swells. Check out this video for the rolling and pitching of the ship today.
NOAA Teacher at Sea Kathleen Harrison Aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson July 4 — 22, 2011
Location: Gulf of Alaska Mission: Walleye Pollock Survey
Here I am with my IB Biology students, exploring a mud flat that is part of a barrier island of the Eastern Shore of Virginia.
In February, I found out that I was selected to be a Teacher at Sea. This was very exciting at the time, but it seemed a bit unreal. By the end of March, I completed the online training, had several more e-mails from the Teacher at Sea program, and was coming to the realization that I actually would be going to sea with NOAA.
Around the first of May, I learned that I would be participating in the Walleye Pollock Survey, in the Gulf of Alaska, for 3 weeks in July. Teaching in Hampton, and living in Virginia Beach, I am used to very hot summers, with plenty of sunshine. It took me a few days to get used to the idea of being cold in July. Now, one day before I fly to Kodiak, I am so excited, I doubt that I will sleep much tonight. I don’t care what the weather is. I am extremely grateful for this opportunity, and will gladly count every pollock that comes up in the net.
On July 3, I will board the NOAA ship Oscar Dyson in the port of Kodiak, Alaska. You can learn more about the Oscar Dyson here: http://www.moc.noaa.gov/od/ I am thrilled to have the chance to participate in real-world research with NOAA, and learn more about marine science careers. Already, I have been asked to share what I learn with a group of students at my school this fall. My International Baccalaureate (IB) Biology students will be reading these posts for their summer homework, and choosing an animal to research. I hope that you will continue to follow my exciting adventures over the next few weeks, as I figure out what a pollock looks like, and identify other Gulf of Alaska marine animals.
NOAA TEACHER AT SEA JASON MOELLER ONBOARD OSCAR DYSON JUNE 11-JUNE 30
NOAA Teacher at Sea: Jason Moeller
Ship: Oscar Dyson
Mission: Walleye Pollock Survey
Geographic Location: Kodiak Harbor
Date: June 29-30
Latitude: 57.78 N
Longitude: -152.42 W
Wind: 4.9 knots
Surface Water Temperature: 8.5 degrees C
Air Temperature: 9.1 degrees C
Relative Humidity: 69%
For the last time, welcome aboard!
We are now back in Kodiak, and I fly out on Thursday, June 30th. We got in late on the 28th, and so that gave us some time to explore! Once again, it was back to the trail to try and look for some bears!
We had a nice start when this bald eagle flew right above our heads and landed on a light!
Another photo of the eagle.
On June 29th, after stopping for some Mexican food, Paul, Jake, Jodi and I hopped in a car and drove out to Anton Larsen Bay in hopes of some great photo opportunities and wildlife. Below are some of the best photographs that I took of the trip.
The first place we stopped the car had this beautiful view of rolling hills and mountains in the background.
The road we took to get here. In the middle of the image is a lake, and if you look hard enough we could see all the way to the ocean.
Jodi has fun demonstrating a yoga pose!
Our next stop was to explore the actual bay. This mountain overlooked the spot where the water ended and land began.
An empty boat was randomly just drifting in the bay. It made for a nice photo though.
After looking at the bay, we began to explore a trail that led into the woods. There was supposed to be a waterfall at the end of the trail, but the trail just ended with no falls in sight. Oh well! This stream ran alongside of the trail the entire way.
Another photo of the stream.
It was nice and sunny yesterday, making it the first time I had seen sun in Kodiak! It made for some picturesque moments while walking through the woods.
In the end, once again, I didn't see a bear. However, as we were driving back, we did see this fox catch a mouse!
Science and Technology Log
As the survey is now over, there is no science and technology log.
Reader Question(s) of the Day!
There are no questions of the day for this last log. However, I would like to extend some thank yous!
First, I would like to thank the NOAA organization for allowing me the wonderful opportunity to travel aboard the Oscar Dyson for the past three weeks. I learned an incredible amount, and will be able to bring that back to my students. I had a great time!
Second, I would like to thank the crew of the ship for letting me come onboard and participate in the survey. Thanks for answering all of my questions, no matter how naive and silly, teaching me about how research aboard this vessel really works, editing these blogs, and for giving me the experience of a lifetime.
Third, I would like to thank Tammy, the other NOAA Teacher at Sea, for all of the help and effort that she put into working with me on the science and technology section of the blog. Tammy, I could not have done it without you!
Next, a huge thank you to the staff of Knoxville Zoo for their support of the trip and granting me the time off! A special thanks especially needs to go to Tina Rolen, who helped edit the blogs and worked with the media while I was at sea. She helped keep me from making a complete fool of myself to the press. Another special thanks goes out to Dr. John, who loaned me the computer that I used to post the first several logs.
Thanks also go out to Olivia, my wonderful and beautiful wife, for supplying the camera that I used for the first half of the trip.
Finally, I would like to thank everyone who read the log and sent comments! I received many positive comments on the photography in this blog, although I must confess that I laughed a bit at those. Paul, our chief scientist, is the expert photographer on board, and his photos expose me for the amateur that I actually am. I would like to end this blog by posting some of the incredible images he gave me at the end of the trip.
Cliffs rise sharply out of the ocean in the Gulf of Alaska
A waterfall plummets into the Gulf of Alaska
Clouds cover the top of an island.
Fog rolls down the cliffs toward the ocean.
The Twin Pillars
A closeup of the cliffs that make up the Alaskan shoreline.
Since we saw so much of it, it seems appropriate to end this blog with a photo of fog over the Gulf of Alaska. Bye everyone, and thanks again!
Hi, my name is Anne Mortimer and I am very fortunate to be a 2011 Teacher at Sea on the NOAA ship Oscar Dyson. On this trip, I’ll be working with researchers on a Pollock fisheries survey. Pollock are mid-water fish that are a very important food resource. The research I will be participating in will help to manage the fish populations in the North Pacific and Bering Sea.
Currently, I live in Bellingham, WA and teach science at Mount Vernon High School. Next year, I will be teaching Biology, Sheltered Biology (for English-language learners), and Physical Science (a freshmen science course). I grew up in dry, sunny eastern Washington but have always loved everything about the ocean and coastal areas. I even worked on Catalina Island, CA for 3 years as a marine science instructor. This will be my first trip to Alaska, and hopefully not my last!
My dog Cedar.
I’m very excited to be a Teacher at Sea, living and working with a research team and the ship crew. So far, I’m most looking forward to seeing Alaska’s beautiful waters and the life found there, and bringing my new experiences to my students in Mount Vernon.
NOAA TEACHER AT SEA JASON MOELLER ONBOARD NOAA SHIP OSCAR DYSON JUNE 11 – JUNE 30, 2011
NOAA Teacher at Sea: Jason Moeller Ship: Oscar Dyson Mission: Walleye Pollock Survey Geographic Location: Gulf of Alaska Dates: June 21-22, 2011
Wind: 17.81 knots
Surface Water Temperature: 6.7 degrees celsius
Air Temperature: 10.10 degrees celsius
Depth: 82.03 meters
Welcome back, explorers!
Today has been the calmest evening since I boarded the Oscar Dyson. The night shift did not fish at all, which meant that I basically had an evening off! Even the evenings we have fished have been relatively calm. It takes us about an hour to an hour and a half to process a haul of fish, and up to this point we average about one haul per night. That gives me quite a bit of down time! When I am on shift, that down time is usually spent in one of two places.
The first spot is the computer lab in the acoustics room. This is the room where we wait for the haul to be brought in. I write the logs, lesson plan, check emails, and surf the web during quiet times.
This is the lounge. The cabinet under the TV has over 500 movies, and a movie is usually playing when I walk in. Behind the couch is a large bookshelf with several hundred books, so I have done a fair amount of pleasure reading as well.
When I am not sitting in one of these two places, I am usually running around the ship with my camera taking nature photos. Below are the best nature photos of the past three days.
One of the coolest things about the Aleutian islands has to be the number of volcanoes that can be seen. This is the one on Unimak Island.
A second picture of the same volcano.
This is just a cool rock formation off of the coast. The Oscar Dyson has been hugging the coast the entire trip, which has been great for scenery.
A gull skims the water by the Oscar Dyson.
A gull wings toward the Oscar Dyson
We resumed fishing today! These trawls brought in quite a few species that I had not seen before, along with the ever plentiful pollock.
The net, filled with fish!
Jason waits for the net to load the fish onto the conveyor belt.
Here, I am separating the arrowtooth flounder from the pollock.
We managed to catch a skate in the net! Skates are very close relatives to sharks. We quickly measured it and then released it into the ocean.
A second photograph of the skate.
Do you remember the little lumpsucker from a few posts back? This is what an adult looks like!
The lumpsucker was slimy! I tried to pick it up with my bare hands, and the slime gummed up my hands so that I couldn't pick it up! Even with gloves designed for gripping fish I had trouble holding on.
A closeup of the lumpsucker
This fish is called a sculpin.
I finally saw a crab! None of us know what was attached to it, but the scientists believe that it was an anemone.
This is a starfish the net pulled up.
Science and Technology Log
There is no Science and Technology Log with this post.
Today’s question comes from James and David Segrest, who are two of my homeschool students!
Q. What do you eat while you are on your adventures? Do you get to catch and eat fish?
The food is great! Our chef has a degree in culinary arts, and has made some amazing meals!
I wake up at 2:30 pm for my 4 pm to 4 am night shift, and usually start my day with a small bowl of oatmeal and a toasted bagel. At 5 pm, about two hours after breakfast, dinner is served, and I will eat a huge meal then too. Every meal has two main courses, a vegetable, a bread, and dessert. We have had a wide variety of main courses which have included bratwurst, steak, gumbo with king crab, fish, chicken parmesan, spaghetti with meatballs, and others!
We will often eat some of the fish we catch, usually salmon and rockfish since those provide the best eating. The salmon disappears to the kitchen so quickly that I have not actually been able to get a photo of one! We have not caught a halibut in the trawl net yet, otherwise we would likely have eaten that as well. Yum! We have not yet eaten pollock, as it is viewed as being a much lower quality fish compared with the rockfish and salmon.
NOAA TEACHER AT SEA JASON MOELLER ONBOARD NOAA SHIP OSCAR DYSON JUNE 11 – JUNE 30, 2011
NOAA Teacher at Sea: Jason Moeller Ship: Oscar Dyson Mission: Walleye Pollock Survey Geographic Location: Gulf of Alaska Dates: June 19-20, 2011
Latitude: 54.29 N
Longitude: -165.13 W
Wind: 12.31 knots
Surface Water Temperature: 5.5 degrees Celsius
Air Temperature: 6.1 degrees Celsius
Depth: 140.99 meters
Welcome aboard, explorers!
To be honest, there is not a great deal to write about for the personal log. My daily schedule has settled in quite nicely! I get off work at 4 in the morning, shower, sleep until 2:30 in the afternoon, and then head down to the acoustics room where we track the fish. When we are processing a catch (see the science and technology section of this blog), I am in the fish lab wearing bright orange waterproof clothes that make me resemble a traffic cone.
Jason in fishing gear.
The rest of the time is down time, which is spent reading, working on the blog, learning about the ship, and dreaming up lesson plans that I can use to torment my students. I hope they are interested in a summer fishing trip, as that is the one I am currently planning.
Most of the blog work involves running around and taking photographs. My wife’s camera was soaked beyond repair during the prank that was pulled (see the previous post) as Sarah was holding the camera when the wave came over the railing. Fortunately, there was another camera on board.
Our survey is keeping us very close to the coast and islands of Alaska. As a result, I’ve gotten some gorgeous photos. This place is just beautiful.
An island shrouded by clouds.
A waterfall falls off into the ocean.
Jason in front of an island. It was a bit windy, but at least it was sunny!
Mountaintops visible just above the island coast. Jake took this photo while I was in the fish lab.
Sunset over Alaskan waters.
Science and Technology Log
Walleye Pollock waiting to be processed
We finally started fishing! As I mentioned in my very first blog, the Oscar Dyson is surveying walleye pollock, which is an important fish species here in Alaska. Walleye pollock make up 56.3% of the groundfish catch in Alaska, and is eaten in fast food restaurants around the world such as Wendy’s, McDonalds, and Burger King. It is also used to make imitation crabmeat.
Our first catch had a little over 300 walleye pollock, and we processed all of them. Three hundred is an ideal sample size for this species. If, for example, we had caught 2,000 pollock, we would only have processed 300 of the fish, and we would have released the rest of them back into the ocean.
The photo captions below will provide a tour of the fish lab as well as introduce blog readers to the data we wish to collect and how scientists aboard the Oscar Dyson collect it.
This is the conveyor belt. After the catch is pulled on board, it is loaded onto this conveyor belt and moved down the belt and into the lab. At this point, the scientists separate the pollock from the rest of the sea life that was accidentally in the net. Today, the majority of the "extra" sea life were brittle stars, sponges, and a few squid.
Once the pollock and other sea life are separated, they are moved to this box to be sexed. In order to do this, we would have to cut the fish open and look at the internal organs of the fish. Once this was done, females would go over the yellow sign on the right and into the box that was hidden behind it. The males went into the box on the left.
Once we had determined the pollock's gender, we moved to the measuring station, which was on the other side of the last station. We laid each individual fish on the table on top of the ruler, and then measured the fish from the head to the fork of its tail. We recorded the length by tapping the table at the fork of the fish's tail with a sensor that we carried in our hand. A sensor in the table recorded the data and sent it to the computer monitor seen above the table.
Jason measures a pollock on the board!
From this catch (we will do this for any following catch as well) we also took and preserved twenty stomachs from random fish. This was done in order to later analyze what the pollock had eaten before they died. We also took forty otoliths from random pollock as well. An otolith is the ear bone of the pollock, and it is incredibly important to researchers as they will tell the pollock’s age in a similar manner to the way a tree’s rings will.
This is a pollock otolith!
After removing the otolith from the fish, they were put into these vials. Each pair of otoliths received their own vial.
While looking at pollock is the main focus of the survey, we did run into some other neat critters in this haul as well!
This is an Atka Mackerel. We also caught a salmon, but I didn't get a good look at it. Our kitchen grabbed it!
This is a basket starfish. We were trawling close to the bottom and pulled it up in the nets.
This is a lumpsucker! They spend their lives on the bottom where they eat slow-moving animals such as worms and mollusks.
This is an arrowtooth flounder. These are not very good eating fish, and are not the flounder found in the supermarket. Check out the nasty teeth in the photo below this one!
I wouldn't want to be bitten by this fish!
Finally, this is a rockfish! The red snapper that we see in the marketplace is often this fish instead.
Today’s question is actually a request. It comes from Tish Neilson, one of our homeschool parents.
Hey Jason -
I had a super favor to ask of you. There is a little girl from Jackson’s school that is a 5th grader and she was recently diagnosed with leukemia. There have been some bracelets created for her that say “Going Bananas for Anna” to show support and several moms and I have gotten together and are putting together a scrapbook for her and trying to get as many people as possible wearing her bracelets in really cool places. Then we are having them take pictures to send to us to put in her scrapbook so she can she how far her bracelets have traveled and how many people are pulling for her. If it’s possible to do so and you would be willing to do it I would LOVE to try and get you a bracelet to take some pictures and send to me from Alaska. Her nickname is Anna Banana and she is always asking for pictures and such so that is why we came up with this idea.
Unfortunately, I had left for Alaska before I received the email, and as a result I do not have a bracelet. Hopefully, a sign will work just as well.
Hi Anna! This is Unimak Island! It is one of the Aleutian Islands off the coast of Alaska! Hang in there, we are rooting for you!
NOAA TEACHER AT SEA JASON MOELLER ONBOARD NOAA SHIP OSCAR DYSON JUNE 11 – JUNE 30, 2011
NOAA Teacher at Sea: Jason Moeller Ship: Oscar Dyson Mission: Walleye Pollock Survey Geographic Location: Gulf of Alaska Dates: June 17-18, 2011
Latitude: 52.34 N
Longitude: -167.51 W
Wind Speed: 7.25 knots
Surface Water Temperature: 6.6 Degrees C
Air Temperature: 7.1 Degrees C
Relative Humidity: 101%
Depth: 63.53 meters
All of the above information was found on http://shiptracker.noaa.gov. Readers can use this site to track exactly where I am at all times!
Welcome back, explorers!
It has been a very eventful 24 hours! We have started fishing, but have done so little that I will wait to talk about that in the next log. Tammy, the other Teacher at Sea, has not begun fishing yet, and as we will be writing the science and technology log together, I will save the fishing stories until she has had a chance to fish.
After turning in last night’s log, we managed to spot eight or nine humpback whales on our starboard side that appeared to be feeding at the surface. They were too far away to get any decent photos, but it was a lot of fun to watch the spouts from their blowholes tower up into the air.
Ten whale spouts rise in the distance.
This afternoon started off by dropping an expendable bathythermograph (from here on out this will be referred to as an XBT). The XBT measures the temperature and depth of the water column where it is dropped (there will be more on this in the Science and Technology section). I was told that I would be dropping the XBT this time, and was led off by Sarah and Abby (two of the scientists on board) to get ready.
The first thing I had to do was to get dressed. I was told the XBT would feel and sound like firing a shotgun, so I had to put on eye, ear and head protection. I was also put in a fireman suit to protect my body from the kickback, since I am so small. The XBT launcher is the tube in my hands.
This is me launching the XBT. Why no smoke? All we actually needed to do was drop the device over the side. The whole shotgun experience was a prank pulled off by the scientists on all of the new guys. Their acting was great! When I turned towards Sarah at one point with the launcher, she ducked out of the way as if afraid I would accidentally fire it. I fell for it hook, line, and sinker.
However, the prank backfired somewhat. As the scientists were all laughing, a huge wave came up over the side of the ship and drenched us. I got nailed, but since I was in all of the gear, I stayed dry with the hem of my jeans being the only casualty. Sarah didn’t get so lucky. Fun times!
Sarah looking a bit wet.
Science and Technology Log
Today, we will be looking at the XBT (the expendable bathythermograph). Bathy refers to the depth, and thermo refers to the temperature. This probe measures the depth and temperature of the water column when it is dropped over the starboard side of the ship.
“Dropping” isn’t exactly the right phrase to use. We use a launcher that resembles a gun. See the photo below to get an idea of what the launcher looks like.
This is the XBT Launcher.
The silver loop is the pin for the launcher. To launch the probe, we pulled the pin and flung out our arm. The momentum pushed the probe out of the tube and into the water below.
The probe is connected to a length of copper wire, which runs continuously as the probe sinks through the water column. It is important to launch the probe as far away from the ship as possible, as the copper wire should never touch the ship. If the wire were to touch the ship, the data feed back to the ship would be disrupted and we would have to launch another probe, which is a waste of money and equipment. The survey technician decides to cut the wire when he/she has determined that sufficient data has been acquired. This normally occurs when the probe hits the ocean floor.
This is a quick and convenient way to collect data on the depth and temperature of the water column. While the ship has other methods of collecting this data (such as a Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth (CTD) probe), the XBT is a simpler system that does not need to be recovered (as opposed to the CTD).
Data collected from the most recent XBT.
Latitude: 53.20 degrees N
Longitude: 167.46 degrees W
Temperature at surface: 6.7 degrees C
Temperature at bottom: 5.1 degrees C
Thermocline: 0 meters to 25 meters.
The thermocline is the area where the most rapid temperature change occurs. Beneath the thermocline, the temperature remains relatively constant.
Today’s reader questions come from James and David Segrest, who are two of my students in Knoxville Zoo’s homeschool Tuesday classes!
1. Did pirates ever travel the path you are on now? Are there any out there now?
A. As far as I know, there are no pirates currently operating in Alaska, and according to the scientists, there were not any on the specific route that we are now traveling. However, Alaska does have a history of piracy! In 1910, a man named James Robert Heckem invented a floating fish trap that was designed to catch salmon. The trap was able to divert migrating salmon away from their normal route and into a funnel, which dumped the fish off into a circular wire net. There, the fish would swim around until they were taken from the trap.
Workers remove salmon from a fish trap in 1938. Historic Photo Courtesy of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife - Fisheries Collection - Photographer: Archival photograph by Mr. Sean Linehan, NOS, NGS.
For people who liked eating fish, this was a great thing! The salmon could be caught quickly with less work, and it was fresh, as the salmon would still be alive when taken from the trap. For the traditional fisherman, however, this was terrible news. The fishermen could not compete with the traps and found that they could not make a living. The result was that the fishermen began raiding the floating traps, using any means possible.
A barge of salmon going to a cannery. Fishermen could not compete with traps that could catch more fish. Historic Photo Courtesy of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife - Fisheries Collection -Photographer: Archival photograph by Mr. Sean Linehan, NOS, NGS
The most common method used was bribery. The canneries that operated the traps would hire individuals to watch the traps. Fishermen would bribe the watchers, steal the fish, and then leave the area. The practice became so common that the canneries began to hire people to watch the trap-watchers.
2. Have you seen any sharks? Are there any sharks that roam the waters where you are traveling?
Hi James and David! Here is your shark! It's a Pacific Sleeper Shark.
The shark in the net
Another image of the shark on the conveyor belt.
This is a Pacific Sleeper Shark. It is called a sleeper shark as it does not appear to move a great deal, choosing instead to glide with very little movement of its fins. As a result, it does not make any noise underwater, making it the owl of the shark world. It hunts much faster fish (pollock, flounders, rockfish) by being stealthy. They are also known to eat crabs, octopus, and even snails! It is one of two animals known to eat giant squid, with the other one being sperm whales, although it is believed that these sharks probably scavenge the bodies of the much larger squid.
The other shark commonly seen is the salmon shark. Hopefully, we will catch one of these and I will have photos later in the trip.
NOAA TEACHER AT SEA JASON MOELLER ONBOARD NOAA SHIP OSCAR DYSON JUNE 11 – JUNE 30, 2011
NOAA Teacher at Sea: Jason Moeller Ship: Oscar Dyson Mission: Walleye Pollock Survey Geographic Location: Gulf of Alaska Date: June 10, 2011
Welcome aboard, explorers!
For those of you who do not know me, my name is Jason Moeller, and I am the on-site coordinator of education at Knoxville Zoological Gardens. I teach the school groups, scouts, homeschool students, and student researchers who come to the Zoo to learn about the natural world.
The Oscar Dyson sits in Kodiak Harbor
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA, has invited me on board the Oscar Dyson, a research vessel that will be spending the next three weeks researching a fish known as the walleye pollock in Alaska’s Bering Sea. According to NOAA’s website, the pollock made up 56.3% of Alaska’s groundfish catch, easily making it the most caught fish in Alaska’s waters. Pollock is commonly found in imitation crabmeat as well as a variety of fast food fish sandwiches.
The crew of the Oscar Dyson will be studying the population of pollock over the course of the next three weeks. I will be working with Tammy Orilio (another teacher at sea) in processing the catch. Orientation will be on June 11th, and we will set sail on June 12th.
Clouds above Canada
Today (June 10th), however, was mainly a travel day. After waking up at four in the morning, I caught a two-hour flight from Knoxville to Chicago, which was then followed by a six-hour flight to Anchorage. Finally, I had a forty-one minute flight from Anchorage to Kodiak. Cloud cover marred what would have been spectacular scenery, but there were some beautiful views from the aircraft otherwise.
After a quick look at the Oscar Dyson and dinner at the hotel, I went to explore the river running by our hotel. According to several fishermen, Sockeye Salmon are beginning their yearly run upriver. Grizzly Bears, though uncommon this time of year, are also occasionally spotted.
Unknown Large Track
Unfortunately, I did not see bears or salmon, but I did see this track. While faded, it did look suspiciously like the mold of a track back at the zoo.
While I did not see any bears or salmon, I did get lucky in other regards. I saw a beautiful red fox, which moved too quickly to catch on film, and rabbits were in abundance. The scenery was also beautiful.
Wind on a hill shaped these trees
A river in Kodiak
Science and Technology Log
The Science and Technology segment of this blog will begin after the Walleye Pollock Survey aboard the Oscar Dyson begins.
Reader Question(s) of the Day!
The reader question(s) of the day will also begin after the start of the Walleye Pollock Survey aboard the Oscar Dyson. Readers are encouraged to send questions to email@example.com. I will attempt to answer one or more questions in future posts.